https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/issue/feed Communication in Physical Sciences 2024-07-11T21:06:11+00:00 Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy okon.nnabuk@unn.edu.ng Open Journal Systems <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/510 Graphical Solution of Eigenstate of an Electron in a Finite Quantum Well 2024-07-01T09:24:40+00:00 Akwuegbu, Ozochi Chinyere ozochia@gmail.com Oriaku, Chijioke Innocent oriakuc29@gmail.com Dinneya, Obinna Christian dinneya.obinna@mouau.edu.ng Nkpoku, Emmanuel Chidiebere nkpokuemmanuel@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 524 -535</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Akwuegbu Ozochi Chinyere, Oriaku Chijioke Innocent, Dinneya Obinna Christian, Nkpoku Emmanuel Chidiebere, Nwaehiodo Immaculate Ihechi </strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 11May 2024/Accepted 12 June 2024</strong></p> <p>This study explores the eigenstates of an electron in a finite quantum well using the Schrödinger wave equation. Quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory in physics, describes the properties of molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles through quantization of energy and wave-particle duality. A quantum well, a nanometer-thin layer in semiconductor materials, confines electrons to a two-dimensional layer, resulting in quantized energy spectra essential for various electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike the infinite potential well, the finite potential well allows for the probability of finding particles outside the well, necessitating accurate calculations of bound states. This research employs a graphical method using MATLAB to solve for the eigenstates and eigenenergies of electrons in a finite quantum well. By deriving the time-independent Schrödinger equation, applying boundary conditions, and utilizing transcendental equations, we determine the energy levels and eigenfunctions of the system. The study highlights the practical applications of quantum wells in modern electronic devices and underscores the importance of understanding quantum confinement in developing advanced technologies.</p> 2024-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/507 Granulometric and Petrographic Assessment of the Textural, Minerological and Paleoenvironment of Deposition of Gulma Sandstone Member, Gwandu Formation, Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria 2024-06-28T22:06:58+00:00 Ola-Buraimo A. Olatunji rolaburaimo@yahoo.com Musa Rukaya rukayyamusa267@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 485-500</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ola-Buraimo A. Olatunji. and Musa Rukaya</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 24 February 2024/Accepted: 21 May 2024</em></strong></p> <p>Granulometric analysis was carried out on sandstone samples collected from the Gulma Area, a suburb of Argungu town, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The sandstone facies were investigated to determine textural characteristics, transportation history, maturity, and paleoenvironment of deposition of the sediments. Heavy mineral analysis and mineral point count were carried out to determine the sandstone’s mineralogical and textural maturity. The standard sieve analysis method was employed by arranging sieves in order of size with the coarsest at the top and the finest size at the bottom with a basal attached pan. The sieve shaker was allowed to operate for fifteen minutes to allow separation of various grain sizes. Field observation revealed that the lithostratigraphic section is composed of nine repetitive layers. The main lithofacies are purplish, moderately bioturbated, liesegang ring structure sandstone, yellowish nodular claystone, and continental massive reddish claystone. The topmost beds are continental massive reddish mudstone and ferruginized granules stone as the capping facies which is different from the commonly oolitic ironstone that characterized the top of the Gwandu Formation. A characteristic liesegang ring structure is present in the Gulma Sandstone Member which is a unique appearance in Gwandu Formation. Cumulative frequencies were plotted whereby textural statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation (sorting), skewness and kurtosis were calculated. The mean values of the samples vary from 2.2-2.26 with an average of 1.86, indicative of fine sand class. The sorting values range between 1.2-1.216 with an average value of 1.196, indicative of poorly sorted particles, characterized by tidal current deposits of high energy. The skewness values vary between -0.447 to -0.1 (ave. 0.198), which is negatively skewed. Kurtosis values range from 0.7-1.82, classified into very leptokurtic, platykurtic and leptokurtic classes. The paleoenvironment of deposition was deduced using multivariate values which range from -9.07 to -5.90; suggestive of marginal marine setting of a tidal and tidal shelf deposition. The Gulma Sandstone Member of the Gwandu Formation is a texturally and mineralogically submatured sediment.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/505 The Efficiency of a Quantum Brayton Engine Using Wood-Saxon Potential 2024-06-22T11:26:29+00:00 Oladimeji Enock Oluwole nockjnr@gmail.com Umeh Emmanuel Chukwuebuka buksjnr@gmail.com Idundun Victory Toritseju vicidundun@gmail.com Koffa Durojaiye Jude durojaiye.koffa@fulokoja.edu.ng Obaje Vivian Onechojo vivianobaje@gmail.com Uzer John Mkohol john.uzer@fulokoja.edu.ng Etim Emmanuel Edet emmaetim@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 476-484</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Oladimeji Enock Oluwole*; Umeh Emmanuel Chukwuebuka; Idundun Victory Toritseju; Koffa Durojaiye Jude; Obaje Vivian Onechojo; Uzer John Mkohol; Etim Emmanuel Edet. </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 10 March 2024/Accepted: 04 June 2024</em></strong></p> <p>This paper investigates the efficiency of a Quantum Brayton Engine (QBE) using the Wood-Saxon (WS) potential as the working substance. The WS potential offers a more realistic model compared to the traditional Free-Particle (FP) model for studying quantum systems. The work follows the formalism established by Bender et al. (2000) to describe the QBE cycle with two isentropic and two adiabatic processes. The efficiency expression for the QBE with WS potential is derived. The derived efficiency expression showcases the dependence on the parameters of the WS potential, including depth, confinement width, and diffuseness. By taking the FP limit of the WS model, the efficiency reduces to the well-known expression for a QBE with a free particle, validating the approach. This research demonstrates the potential of the WS potential for analyzing the performance of QBE and paves the way for further exploration of more realistic models in quantum thermodynamics.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/503 Assessment of Surface Water Quality in Zaria Metropolis: Implications for Environmental Health and Sustainable Management 2024-06-21T21:32:29+00:00 Uba Sani saniuba10@yahoo.com Abdulkadir Ibrahim ibrahim.abdulkadir@gmail.com Akande, Esther Oluwatoyosi oluwatoyosiakande026@gmail.com John, Oghenetega Mercy johnotegamercy@gmail.com Murtala, Mohammed Rumah murtala.mohammed@umyu.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 438-449</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Uba Sani., Abdulkadir Ibrahim., Akande, Esther Oluwatoyosi .,John, Oghenetega Mercy., Murtala, Mohammed Rumah.</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 13 January 2024/Accepted: 08 June 2024 </em></strong></p> <p>Surface water bodies, including rivers, dams, and lakes, are integral to urban development and human life, supporting both urban residents and rural agricultural sectors. However, rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization have posed significant threats to water quality worldwide. Industrial discharges, in particular, contribute to water pollution, notably with toxic heavy metals. Assessing water quality involves monitoring various physicochemical parameters, which can be laborious and challenging. Therefore, this study employs statistical correlation analysis to understand the interrelationships among water quality parameters, aiming to simplify water quality assessment. Water samples were collected from Shika, Galma, and Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) dams in Zaria, Nigeria, and analysed for various parameters. Results showed that dissolved oxygen (DO) levels ranged from 1.37 to 3.67 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) ranged from 0.47 to 1.83 mg/L, and pH varied from 4.33 to 6.93 across different sampling points. Turbidity ranged from 65.27 to 152.20 NTU, total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 30.67 to 956.33 mg/L, and total suspended solids (TSS) ranged from 16.67 to 170.00 mg/L. Electrical conductivity (EC) varied from 62.97 to 1888.33 µs/cm, alkalinity (ALK) ranged from 14.00 to 28.00 mg/L, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 93.30 to 123.30 mg/L. Sulphate (SO<sub>4</sub>) concentrations ranged from 381.70 to 568.30 mg/L, nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) ranged from 9.00 to 26.00 mg/L, and phosphate (PO<sub>4</sub>) ranged from 0.12 to 0.61 mg/L. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlations among these parameters, indicating complex relationships within the aquatic ecosystem. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in water quality among sampling points, suggesting the influence of diverse pollution sources. Furthermore, the Water Quality Index (WQI) was calculated to assess the overall water quality status, indicating poor to unfit conditions for consumption across the studied locations. These findings underscore the urgent need for effective water management strategies to safeguard surface water quality for current and future generations.</p> 2024-06-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/500 A Mathematical Investigation of Fuel Subsidy Removal and its Effects on Nigerian Economy 2024-06-10T06:29:10+00:00 Chigozie. Chibuisi chigoziec@unijos.edu.ng Bright O. Osu Osu.bright@abiastateuniversity.edu.ng Kevin Ndubuisi C. Njoku kevinnjoku60@yahoo.com Chukwuka Fernando Chikwe fernandochikwe@unical.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 398-428</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Chigozie Chibuisi, Bright O. Osu, Kevin Ndubuisi C. Njoku and Chukwuka Fernando&nbsp; Chikwe</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 14 January 2024/Accepted: 09 May 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The objective of this paper is to investigate and provide a solution to the adverse effects of fuel subsidy removal on the Nigerian Economy through a mathematical investigation. Recently, the removal of fuel subsidies by the Nigerian Government is of good interest to strengthen the economy of the country but it resulted in information and macroeconomic adverse effects of uncertainties directly to petroleum marketers, fuel dealers, transport operators, production companies and marketers of produced products and the general public thereby inflicting sufferings on the masses through inflation. The adverse effects of these uncertainties are capable of resulting in future delay and uncertainty noise in the financial market during business transactions which are therefore modeled mathematically as an Advanced Stochastic Delay Differential Equation (ASDDE). The modelled equation is solved using the Hybrid Extended Second Derivative Block Backward Differentiation Formulae Method (HESDBBDFM) with three new theorems of mathematical expressions developed for the evaluations of the delay term and noise term. To reduce the adverse effects of uncertainties of fuel subsidy removal, the government of Nigeria should diversify and develop other economies and conduct a well-designed communication campaign to highlight and tackle the negative impact of fuel subsidy and the benefits from its removal and compensating measures for the poor to cushion the adverse effects of fuel subsidy removal. This can be expressed mathematically by solving some examples of ASDDE numerically using the proposed method. The analysis of the numerical solutions of the modelled equation with its comparison and graphical presentations proved that the proposed method performs better by producing the Least Minimum Absolute Random Errors (LMAREs) at Lesser Computational Processing Unit Time (LCPUT) which indicates a reduction in the adverse effects of uncertainties of fuel subsidy removal for better economy than other existing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency.</p> 2024-04-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/498 Modelling Glucose-Insulin Dynamics: Insights for Diabetes Management 2024-06-08T11:31:17+00:00 Amadi Ugwulo Chinyere amadichinyere815@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 382-397</strong></p> <p><strong>Author:</strong> Amadi Ugwulo Chinyere</p> <p><strong><em>Received: 26 January 2024/Accepted: 10 May 2024</em></strong></p> <p>This study presents a comprehensive review and critical analysis of mathematical models used in glucose-insulin regulatory systems, with a focus on their application in diabetes research and clinical practice. The review highlights the strengths and limitations of existing models, emphasizing the need for further refinement and validation to enhance their predictive accuracy and clinical utility. Additionally, recommendations for future research directions are provided, emphasizing the importance of interdisciplinary collaborations and the translation of mathematical models into practical tools for personalized diabetes management. Overall, this work contributes to the advancement of mathematical modelling in diabetes research and underscores its potential to improve patient care and outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/516 Seed Yam Multiplication Using Minisett Technique 2024-07-11T21:06:11+00:00 Cletus O. Ezidi ezicomeng@gmail.com Eucharia N. Nwosu euchariapatricks@gmail.com Rita O. Ohakwe ritabenard50@gmail.com Chukwunonso S. Okeke snollycon@gmail.com Austin E. Aniecheonwu everaustin@yahoo.com Okwuchukwu E. Onyekaonwu onyekaonwuokwuchukwu@gmail.com Chinyere E. Umeocho chinyereumeocho@gmail.com Kingsley T. Agusiobo agusiobokingsley@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 569-575</strong></p> <p><strong>Cletus O. Ezidi*, Eucharia N. Nwosu, Rita O. Ohakwe, Chukwunonso S. Okeke, Austin E. Aniecheonwu, Okwuchukwu E. Onyekaonwu, Chinyere E. Umeocho and Kingsley T. Agusiobo</strong></p> <p><strong><br>Received: 12 March 2024/Accepted: 26 June 2024</strong></p> <p>Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plays a crucial role in West African agriculture, providing food security and income. However, challenges such as high seed yam costs and scarcity hinder production. The yam miniset technology, aiming to increase planting material multiplication, was evaluated in Abagana, Anambra State. The study assessed sprouting rates, growth dynamics, and yield of yam setts from head, middle, and tail tuber regions. Results showed the head region had the earliest sprouting (8-14 days), followed by the tail (14-21 days) and middle (after 2 weeks). Pre-sprouting in a sterilized medium enhanced survival and reduced disease. The technique demonstrated potential for enhancing yam production, suggesting avenues for farmer education, government support, and further research to promote adoption. These steps can bolster yam production, ensuring food security and economic stability in the region.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/513 Formation Evaluation Using Integrated Petrophysical Data Analysis of Maboro Field Niger Delta Sedimentary Basin, Nigeria 2024-07-02T20:05:43+00:00 Ajogwu Cordelia Odinaka cordeliaajogwu@gmail.com Aaron Auduson Aaron.auduson@fulokoja.edu.ng Tope Alege Tope.alege@fulokoja.edu.ng Yusuf Odunsanwo sanwo_lanre@yahoo.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 509-523</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ajogwu Cordelia Odinaka*, Aaron Auduson, Tope Alege &nbsp;and Yusuf Odunsanwo</strong></p> <p><strong><br>Received: 02&nbsp; April&nbsp; 2024/Accepted 13 June 2024</strong></p> <p>This study investigates the petrophysical characteristics of the Maboro-Field sand reservoir in the Niger Delta Basin to understand the reasons for its poor hydrocarbon production. Hydrocarbon exploration remains crucial due to the significance of hydrocarbons as primary energy sources. Formation evaluation, encompassing lithology identification, well-log correlation, and petrophysical parameter estimation, was employed to assess the reservoir quality. The analysis involved gamma ray, resistivity, neutron, and density logs from three wells, coupled with 3-D seismic data interpretation using the variance attribute method. The study identified four primary lithologies: sandstone, shale-rich sandstone, sand-rich shale, and shale. Porosity, water saturation, and net pay thickness were evaluated, revealing that CO-01 and CO-03 wells have zones with commercial quantities of hydrocarbons, while CO-02 showed limited potential. Variations in gamma ray signatures indicated lateral continuity of the sand reservoirs, with thirteen hydrocarbon-bearing sands delineated. The 3-D seismic data indicated favorable structural deposition for hydrocarbon accumulation. The findings highlight the varying quality of the reservoirs, with some zones showing high porosity and hydrocarbon saturation, while others were affected by high shale volume and poor porosity. The volumetric analysis estimated the stock tank oil initially in place (STOOIP) and gas initially in place (GIIP), indicating significant gas reserves in several reservoirs. The study demonstrates that petrophysical analysis, integrating well log data and seismic interpretation, effectively identifies productive zones and provides insights into the reservoir's potential for hydrocarbon production.</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/511 Graphical Solution of Eigenstate of an Electron in a Finite Quantum Well 2024-07-02T09:25:22+00:00 Akwuegbu, Ozochi Chinyere ozochia@gmail.com Oriaku, Chijioke Innocent oriakuc29@gmail.com Dinneya, Obinna Christian dinneya.obinna@mouau.edu.ng Nkpoku, Emmanuel Chidiebere nkpokuemmanuel@gmail.com Nwaehiodo, Immaculate Ihechi immaculatenwaehiodo@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 524 -535</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Akwuegbu Ozochi Chinyere, Oriaku Chijioke Innocent, Dinneya Obinna Christian, Nkpoku Emmanuel Chidiebere, Nwaehiodo Immaculate Ihechi </strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 11May 2024/Accepted 12 June 2024</strong></p> <p>This study explores the eigenstates of an electron in a finite quantum well using the Schrödinger wave equation. Quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory in physics, describes the properties of molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles through quantization of energy and wave-particle duality. A quantum well, a nanometer-thin layer in semiconductor materials, confines electrons to a two-dimensional layer, resulting in quantized energy spectra essential for various electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike the infinite potential well, the finite potential well allows for the probability of finding particles outside the well, necessitating accurate calculations of bound states. This research employs a graphical method using MATLAB to solve for the eigenstates and eigenenergies of electrons in a finite quantum well. By deriving the time-independent Schrödinger equation, applying boundary conditions, and utilizing transcendental equations, we determine the energy levels and eigenfunctions of the system. The study highlights the practical applications of quantum wells in modern electronic devices and underscores the importance of understanding quantum confinement in developing advanced technologies.</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/509 The performance analysis of a Wood-Saxon driven Quantum-Mechanical Carnot Engine 2024-07-01T08:47:55+00:00 Oladimeji Enock Oluwole nockjnr@gmail.com Umeh Emmanuel Chukwuebuka buksjnr@gmail.com Idundun Victory Toritseju vicidundun@gmail.com Koffa Durojaiye Jude durojaiye.koffa@fulokoja.edu.ng Obaje Vivian Onechojo vivianobaje@gmail.com Petinrin Moses Omolayo layopet01@yahoo.com Adeleke Joshua Toyin joshua.adeleke@uniosun.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 501-508</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Oladimeji Enock Oluwole*, Umeh Emmanuel Chukwuebuka, Idundun Victory Toritseju, Koffa Durojaiye Jude, Obaje Vivian Onechojo, Petinrin Moses Omolayo and &nbsp;Adeleke Joshua Toyin</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 16 March 2024/Accepted: 05 June 2024</strong></p> <p>Classical heat engines (CHEs) have long been employed to convert heat energy into mechanical work through various thermodynamic processes. However, limitations such as friction have driven the exploration of quantum heat engines (QHEs), which operate in the quantum domain and are less susceptible to classical constraints. In this study, we focus on Quantum Heat Engines powered by the Wood-Saxon (WS) oscillator, a model originally developed for nuclear physics but recently applied to quantum systems. Building upon previous work on the efficiency of a WS-powered Carnot engine, we further investigate its performance optimization. We derive expressions for the dimensionless power output and explore the optimization of power output and efficiency. Through mathematical analysis, we determine the optimal parameters for maximum power output, considering the condition for non-negativity of efficiency. The dimensionless power output is found to depend on the efficiency, which varies with the characteristics of the working substance. Our results show that the Wood-Saxon model outperforms the Free Particle model in terms of maximum power efficiency for Quantum Carnot engines. The efficiency at maximum power for the WS-powered engine is 0.739, indicating its superiority over the Free Particle model. This analysis provides insights into the performance characteristics of quantum heat engines and underscores the significance of the choice of working substance in optimizing engine efficiency.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/506 Assessment of Geotechnical Attributes of Laterites as Sub-base and Sub-Grade Materials in Parts of Northern Anambra Basin Nigeria: Implications for Road Pavement Construction 2024-06-27T11:46:22+00:00 Esharive Ogaga ogaga.esharive@fulokoja.edu.ng Onimisi Martins martins.onimisi@fulokoja.edu.ng Abdulateef Onimisi Jimoh onimisimail@gmail.com Akudo Ernest orji ernest.akudo@fulokoja.edu.ng Aigbadon Godwin Okumagbe godwin.aigbadon@unibenin.edu Achegbulu Ojonimi Emmanuel emmanuel.achegbulu@fulokoja.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 536 -547</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Esharive Ogaga*, Onimisi Martins, </strong><strong>Abdulateef Onimisi Jimoh, Akudo Ernest Orji, Aigbadon Godwin Okumagbe and Achegbulu Ojonimi Emmanuel</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 04 February 2024/Accepted: 14 June 2024</strong></p> <p>The suitability of quality sub-base and sub-grade material is crucial for the durability of roads, which in turn drives economic development. Therefore, in this study, we investigates the causes of road pavement failures in the Anyigba region, Nigeria, focusing on the geotechnical and geomorphological characteristics of laterite. The research area, located between 07°21’0” to 07°37’30”N and 07°20’0” to 07°33’0”E, is characterized by fluctuating climatic conditions and varying geomorphological features. Geotechnical sampling and rigorous laboratory analysis were conducted on laterite samples from various locations along the Ajaokuta–Anyigba and Akpa–Anyigba–Dekina roads. Key tests included moisture content, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, compaction, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR).Results indicated that the laterite samples had moisture contents ranging from 11.4% to 15.9%, and grain size analysis showed sand content between 91.3% and 99.7%, with fines ranging from 0.3% to 8.7%. The Atterberg limits revealed liquid limits between 21.2% and 39.6%, plastic limits between 16.4% and 32.6%, and plasticity indices between 2.5% and 7.9%. Compaction tests showed Maximum Dry Density (MDD) values between 1964 kg/m³ and 2101 kg/m³, and Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) values between 10.7% and 12.4%. CBR tests indicated values from 26% to 66% for unsoaked materials and 13% to 61% for soaked materials. These findings suggest that the laterite in the study area possesses low moisture content and favorable grain size distribution for road construction, with low plasticity and moderate shrinkage resistance. The high MDD and suitable OMC values confirm the material's suitability for sub-base and subgrade applications. CBR values support the adequacy of laterite as a subgrade and sub-base material. This comprehensive analysis highlights the importance of pre-engineering investigations to prevent road failures and contributes to sustainable infrastructure development in the region</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/504 Convergence Analysis of Sinc-Collocation Scheme With Composite Trigonometric Function for Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind 2024-06-22T10:44:15+00:00 Eno John eno.john@akwaibompoly.edu.ng Promise Asukwo promiseasukwo@gmail.com Nkem Ogbonna Ogbonna.n42@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 463-475</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Eno John, Promise Asukwo and Nkem Ogbonna</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 24 January 2024/Accepted:06 June 2024</strong></p> <p>The paper discusses the convergence of Sinc collocation scheme for the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. A modified composite trigonometric function is employed as a variable transformation function for this procedure. We first show that the constructed variable transformation function decays exponentially and thus satisfies the conditions for the error bound associated with single exponential transformation functions. Next, the convergence analysis of the scheme showing exponential convergence is discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and stability of the numerical scheme.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/502 Difference Synchronization of Fractional Order Chaotic Systems Via Active Control 2024-06-21T18:15:28+00:00 Abidemi Emmanuel Adeniji aeadeniji@bellsuniversity.edu.ng Ayotunde Abel Ajayi ajayi.ayotunde@fcet-akoka.edu.ng Abiodun Isiaka Egunjobi egunjobiai@funaab.edu.ng Kayode Stephen Ojo kaojo@unilag.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 373-381</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Abidemi Emmanuel Adeniji., Ayotunde Abel Ajayi, Abiodun Isiaka Egunjobi. and Kayode Stephen Ojo</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 12 Janary 2024/Accepted: 07 May2024 </em></strong></p> <p>The integration of memristors and meminductors into fractional-order chaotic systems has opened up new avenues for exploring complex dynamics. This research investigates difference synchronization in memristive and meminductive fractional-order chaotic systems evolving from diverse initial conditions. Active control techniques are employed to achieve difference synchronization among three such systems. Numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the active control techniques. This study contributes to the understanding of synchronization in complex systems and offers insights into potential applications.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/499 Study of Potential Effect and Health Benefits of Soaking Time on the Nutritional Composition and Some Anti-Nutrient Factors in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 2024-06-09T07:24:26+00:00 Ifiok Dominic Uffia ifiokuffia@yahoo.com Ofonimeh Emmanuel Udofia udofiaofonime17@gmail.com Christiana Samuel Udofia christianaudofia70@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 429-437</strong></p> <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 429-437</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ifiok Dominic Uffia, Ofonimeh Emmanuel Udofia, Christiana Samuel Udofia</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 02 January 2024/Accepted: 02 May 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The study of the potential effect and health benefits of water soaking time on the nutritional composition and some anti-nutrient factors (phytate, hydrocyanic acid, oxalate, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid and tannins) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was determined. Cowpea seeds were divided into three batches of 100g each. Two batches were soaked in clean tap water for one and two hours respectively.&nbsp; The result revealed that the moisture contents of cowpeas increased with soaking time from (7.87%&nbsp; at 0hour, 50.52% at 1 hour to 53.35% at 2 hours); fat from (1.45% at 0hour, 1.57 at 1 hour to 2.25% at 2 hours), also increasing with soaking time were carbohydrate and caloric contents of the cowpea from (70.25% at 0hour, 70.96% at 1hour to 74.00% at 2hours) and (383.67% at 0hour, 384.76% at 1hour to 390. 43 at 2hours%) respectively. It was also observed that soaking of cowpea for one and two hours independently decreased the protein, fibre &amp; ash contents of the cowpea ranging from (22.40% to 18.55% protein), (2.36% to 2.08% fibre) and (3.5398% to 3.1204% ash). All the anti-nutrients studied recorded slight reductions except oxalates and alkaloids which were significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced with soaking time. This indicates that longer water soaking time is an effective way of lowering toxic substances in legume-based foods and enhancing nutrient bioavailability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/515 Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources in a Semi-Arid Region: A Case Study of Damaturu, Yobe State 2024-07-11T20:28:35+00:00 Usman Mohammed Ibrahim usmantso4@gmail.com Agada Livinus Emeka agadaman1908@gmail.com <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 450-462</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Usman Mohammed Ibrahim and Agada Livinus Emeka* </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 04 February 2024/Accepted: 08 June 2024</em></strong></p> <p>In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater was investigated. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data obtained from the study area was used to characterize the subsurface lithology of the study area. Schlumberger electrode configuration was adopted for the study and five geoelectric layers were delineated. The delineated geologic layers are topsoil, clay, sand, sandy-clay, and sand. Precipitation and temperature data for thirty years (1991-2020) obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological Station Potiskum, were used to analyze the impact of climate variability on groundwater in the study area. The temperature and precipitation data were analyzed using the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) method. The geophysical survey results showed that the proximity of the first aquifer to the ground surface enhances the influence of high temperature on the groundwater. The first aquifer is semi-confined while the second aquifer is confined in the study area. The results of the analyzed precipitation data showed that the amount of precipitation in the study area has declined over the years. The results of the analyzed temperature data clearly showed that the study area is warming. The aquifers in the study area recharge by precipitation (rainfall) since there are no rivers or streams in the area. The decline in the amount of precipitation in the study area over the years has affected the aquifer recharge, leading to a reduction in the groundwater table. &nbsp;The effects of climate change on groundwater in the study area contributed to water scarcity, and the drying up of some wells and shallow boreholes in the study area. It has also contributed to the high cost of groundwater management in the area. The increasing trend in climatic variability in the study area may endanger the groundwater potential of the area if appropriate actions are not taken.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/512 On Investment Model for a CARA Pension Scheme Member with Return of Contributions Clause for Mortgage Housing Scheme 2024-07-02T13:28:46+00:00 Ase M. Esabai esabaimatty19@gmail.com Edikan E. Akpanibah edemae@fuotuoke.edu.ng Sylvanus K. Samaila samailask@fuotuoke.edu.ng <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 548-558</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ase M. Esabai <sup>*</sup> Edikan E. Akpanibah and Sylvanus K. Samaila</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 12 March 2024/Accepted: 20 June 2024</strong></p> <p>This paper investigates a pension scheme member’s (PSM) portfolio in a defined contributory (DC) pension plan with a return of premium for mortgage scheme and charge on balance(CB) for time-consistent utility. A portfolio with one risk-free asset and two risky assets which are modelled using the geometric Brownian motion (GBM) process is considered, such that the instantaneous volatilities of the risky assets form a 2×2 positive definite matrix &nbsp;with . The PSMs interested in the mortgage housing scheme are modelled using Abraham De Moivre’s force function, and the optimization problem is obtained using a dynamic programming approach. Using Legendre transformation and dual theory with variable change technique, the optimal value function (OVF), and optimal investment distribution (OID) are obtained for a PSM with utility function exhibiting constant absolute risk averse (CARA). Furthermore, some numerical analyses were carried out and was observed that factors such as risk-free interest rate, risk-averse coefficient, entry age of PSM, initial wealth and CB were critical in developing an OID with this kind of return clause.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author