Communication in Physical Sciences https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> University Of Nigeria Nsukka en-US Communication in Physical Sciences 2645-2448 The Redox Reaction between Di-μ-Oxo-Tetrakis (2, 2’- bipyridine) – Dimanganese (III, IV) Perchlorate and 1, 3-Dihydroxybenzene in Hydrochloric Acid https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/154 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 738-745</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Patricia Ese Umoru<sup>*</sup>and Ameh David Onu</p> <p><strong>Received 10 October 020/Accepted 24 October 2020</strong></p> <p>The redox reaction between di-μ-oxo-tetrakis (2, 2’- bipyridine) – dimanganese (III, IV) perchlorate <sup>3+ </sup>and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene ( Q) in hydrochloric acid was investigated using spectroscopic technique. The stoichiometry of the reaction was 2:3 for <sup>3+</sup>: Q. The rate of reaction was first order with respect to both species while the overall rate of reaction was second order. Investigation of the effect of ionic strength on the reaction gave evident for non-dependence of the rate of reaction on change in dielectric constant, D, of the medium. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in the concentration of the acid and was found to be unaffected by the addition of added (Ni<sup>2+</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and HCOO<sup>-</sup>) ions. There was no gel-formation in the course of the reaction and Michaelis-Menten’s type plot gave a straight line starting from the origin.</p> Patricia Ese Umoru Ameh David Onu Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 6 1 Synthesis of an azo dye and its cobalt complex derived from 3-aminophenol https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/148 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 722-725</strong></p> <p><strong>Gideon Wyasu*,&nbsp; B. Myek and Sunday Solomon</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 19 May 2020/Accepted 20 September 2020</strong></p> <p>An azo dye derived from 3-aminophenol and its cobalt complex have been synthesized and characterized using Fourier transformed and ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer. The ligand (dye) exhibited an absorption maximum at 470 nm but the absorbance maxima for the synthesized Schiff base complex deviated from 470 to 473 nm which indicated the existent of interaction between the cobalt and the ligand to form metal-dye complex. Moreover, the infrared absorbance band for -N=N- stretching vibration at 1513.3 cm<sup>-1</sup> for azo dye nut in the complex the frequency shifted to 1457.4 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated percentage yield of the azo dye was found to be 84% while that of its cobalt complex was 59%.</p> Gideon Wyasu B. Myek Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 6 1 Effect of Isoberlina Wood Fillers on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC Composites https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/143 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 706-713</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 27 August 2020/Accepted 24 September 2020</strong></p> <p>Mechanical and thermal properties of Isoberlina (IS) wood reinforced polyvinyl chloride composites have been studied. The IS fibre was treated with sodium hydroxide solution to boast the adhesion between the hydrophilic natural fibre and the hydrophobic plastic matrix. The percentage fibre loading was varied from 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 to 24. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) technique was used to investigate the effect of Isoberlina wood powder on the thermal properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mechanical properties: ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elastic modulus and hardness showed an extensive improvement compared to the unreinforced PVC. DMA results showed that composite with 12 wt % IS have higher glass transition temperature and better stiffness stability at elevated temperature than the unreinforced PVC. Isoberlina wood powder can thus serve as a valuable reinforcement in the development of polymer composites.</p> Uwaisu Yusuf Paul A. P. Mamza Casimir Emmanuel Gimba Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-26 2020-08-26 6 1 Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Solenostemon Monostachyus Leaf Extract and its Antimicrobial Activity https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/140 <p><strong>Communication In Physical Sciences 2020 ,66(1) : 699-705</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 24 August 2020/Accepted 07 September 2020</strong></p> <p>A simple and rapid biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) obtained using Solenostemon monostachyus leaf extract. The ZnO NPs was characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersed X-ray, Fourier Transform Infra-red and X-ray Diffraction techniques. The UV-visible spectrum showed a maximum absorption peak at 350 nm which is typical for ZnO NPs and was ascribed to the excitation of Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon. FTIR Spectroscopy revealed a broad peak around 3455 cm<sup>-1</sup> which was attributed to OH stretching vibration (υOH) that is probably from alcohols, flavonoids and phenols. X-ray Diffraction studies were observed at 2θ = 11.1°, 13.8°, 16.7°, 25.1°, 28.9° and 44.0°. The X-ray spectrum indicated typical for crystalline nanoparticles. Calculated nano particle size was 23.06 nm and was within the literature range for nano zinc oxide. The synthesized NPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but exhibited moderate activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhimurium. Significant antifungal activity was also observed against Aspergellus niger and Candida albican.</p> Elisha Karu Buhari Magaji* Zaccheus Shehu Hadiza Abdulsalam Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 6 1 Absorption of Solar Infrared Radiation by Tropospheric Water Vapour in Abeokuta Southwest of Nigeria https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/138 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 694-698</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 17 August 2020/Accepted 20 September 2020</strong></p> <p>Absorption of infrared radiation through variation of water vapour transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 6.3mm absorption band was studied using Goody model on pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-16 km) for four months; (March, May, August and September, 2019) in Abeokuta metropolis. Computed results indicated, showed that water vapour transmittance decreased with increase in altitude (Z) at 2 km &lt; Z ≤ 16 km (throughout the study period) due to absorption of infrared radiation by water vapour in the troposphere. The observed trend was attributed to the effect of warming on the lower troposphere</p> Olusegun Sowole Funke Roseline Amodu Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 6 1 Preliminary Screening of Medicinal plants in Nigeria for Phytochemicals and Essential Oils Constituents https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/129 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020 6(1): 669-674</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 27 August 2020/Accepted 01 September 2020</strong></p> <p>Applications of plant extracts for medicinal purpose is based on its phytochemical and essential oil components. Therefore, this study was designed to screen some medicinal plants that are typical to Nigerian environment for their essential oil and phytochemicals constituents. The tests results indicated that methanolic extract of the stem bark/leaves of <em>Bosweillia dalzielii, Ocimum americanus, Hyptis spicigera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus cammaldulensis, vossia cuspidata, Lavandula officinalis, Cinnamondedrone cubenes, D. microcarpun, D. Mespilisformis, Isoberlinia doka, L. korstringi, and K. sengalensis</em> contain basic metabolite and essential oils. The essential oil content deduced from steam distillation indicated significant concentrations in the studied plants.</p> Musa Runde Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 6 1 Repositioning the Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Bauhinia Galpinii Leaves as Potential Inhibitors Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) II Protease Through Application of In Silico Studies https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/127 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1); 627-634</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 30 June 2020/Accepted 29 August 2020</strong></p> <p>The global health implication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) II protease has posed an unmatched health challenge provoking increasing interest in search, design and development of new.&nbsp; Therapeutic agents with the capacity to curb the spread of the disease.&nbsp; The bioactive compound in the leaf extract of Bauhinia galpiniiand were investigated for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) II protease using molecular docking technique.&nbsp; Result obtained from the docking analysis revealed that 24-isopropylcholest-5-en-3, 8-diol-1hsh interacted with binding energies of -5.6 Kcal/mol and was selected as the lead molecule.&nbsp; This molecule was observed to interact with PRO81, ILE84, ALA28, ASP29, ASP30, ILE32, MET76, VAL47, GLY48, GLY49 and ILE50 &nbsp;within the active site of the 1hsh.&nbsp; ADME prediction revealed that the lead molecule obeys the Lipinski rule without any violation and had a 0.55 bioavailability score.&nbsp; The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeant and gastrointestinal absorption (GI) were hindered and low, respectively.&nbsp; The study concluded that 24-isopropylcholest-5-en-3, 8-diol is a promising candidate for the development of HIV drug.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Victor O. Ikpeazu Amaku James Friday Kalu . K. Igwe Ifeanyi E. Otuokere Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 6 1 Incidence of Tinea pedis and Eczema among Male and Female Students: Effect of Hydraulic Oil and Antifungal Creams https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/158 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(1): 753-759 </strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Imaobong T. Adenugba., Nkeneke E. Akpainyang., Emem. I. Ntekpere., Eteyen A. Uko, Agnes. M. Jones and Michael Edidiong Esu</strong></p> <p>This study was designed to assess incident of Tinea pedis and eczema skin infections on male and female students of Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. The fungal that causes these infections were identified and characterized while the potency of three types of hydraulic oils (Bx oil, Al oil and Ad oil) were tested over known pharmaceutical formulations (i.e antifungal creams including Tr creams, Gd cream and Sk cream).&nbsp;&nbsp; A total of twenty-one (21) students with either Tinea pedis or eczema volunteered for this analysis and the results obtained indicated a. significant differences (p&lt;0.05) between incidence of these infections on the female and male students was observed with the female taken the lead. Eleven (11) female students five (5) (45.5%) had Tinea pedis while 6 (54.5%) had eczema and of the 10 male students 8 (80.0%) had Tinea pedis while 2 (20.0%) had eczema. The isolates identified included Trichophhyton sp, Microsporium sp and Aspergillus sp. Susceptibility result showed that the Bx oil sample was quite effective on all the fungal isolates while resistance was seen on the Ad and Al oil samples for all the isolates. The susceptibility of the antifungal creams on the isolates showed that all the isolates were sensitive to Tr and Sk creams while moderate sensitivity was seen for Gd cream. This analysis therefore shows that antifungal creams have a higher level of susceptibility on fungal isolates compared to hydraulic oil</p> Imaobong T. Adenugba Nkeneke E. Akpainyang Emem I. Ntekpere Eteyen A. Uko Agnes M. Jones Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 6 1 Validation of Perception of Some Nigerians on the Origin and Use of Phyto-remedies in Management of Covid 19; An Overview of Social Media Respondents https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/125 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 649-657</strong></p> <p>In 2019, a novel respiratory tract disease causing microorganism, SARS-COV 2 was reported with origin traced to some species of bat in Wuhan-China. The first case of this disease was reported in Nigeria on the 27<sup>th</sup> of February 2020. A lot of speculations were posted on social media on the origin, management and existence of COVID 19. This study is designed to assess the perception of some Nigerians on COVID 19 and to validate the claim on the use of some plants formulation for the treatment of this disease. An online view of the perception and speculation of some Nigerians were obtained from the surveymonkey URL <a href="https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7T9KNSB">https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7T9KNSB</a>. 10 structured questions were designed and administered to respondent with the aim of drawing information on the origin of COVID 19, public perception on the management of COVID 19 with phytomedicines and prevention approach against COVID 19. The validation of the origin of SARS-COV 2 virus and its management was sustained by available literature. This study reveals that little or no knowledge on the origin of SARS-COV 2 was demonstrated by the respondents. The claim management approach of the COVID 19 did not correspond with the existing literature relating the activities of the plants phytochemical constituents on various viral species.</p> M. Runde Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 6 1 Analysis of Heavy Metals in Roasted Meat (Suya) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria and their Health Risk Assessment https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/155 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 746-752</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> <strong>Abdulrazaq Yahaya, Abdulbasit A. Aliyu, Alexender D. Onoja, Abdulsalam Abdulkareem, &nbsp;Olufunke L Idowu,&nbsp; Jane Odoma, Victor F. Omale,., </strong><strong>Daniel Onuche</strong>,<strong> Racheal O.Nayo, John S. </strong></p> <p><strong>Abimaje. </strong></p> <p>The aim of this work is to assess the concentration of some heavy metals in roasted meat that are sold along the road sides in Anyigba with the view of estimating their potential health risk using contamination indices. Roasted meat samples were collected from four different sample locations in Anyigba and were screened for the presence of Fe, Mg, Zn, Pb and Cd. The filtrates were analyzed for the presence of some heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained indicated that the mean concentrations of the analysed heavy metals were: 40.4 ± 0.26 -74.8 ± 0.84 mg/kg (Fe), BDL - 9.00 ± 1.20 mg/kg (Mg), 0.60 ± 0.14 - 6.80 ± 0.23 mg/kg (Zn), BDL - 2.60 ±0.65 mg/kg (Pb), BDL - 0.20 ± 0.16 mg/kg (Cd). Concentrations of Pb (1.03 ± 0.02) and Cd (0.20 ± 0.01) were above some recommended limits (EC, 2001; FAO/WHO, 2010). Also, mean concentration of Fe (46.5 ± 0.64) mg/kg was slightly above NASEM (2001) recommended limit while calculated EDI, ILCR and THI were within the permissive limit (except for the THI for Pb in adult).</p> A. Yahaya A.A. Abdulbasit, A.D. Onoja A. Abdulkareem O.L. Idowu J. Odoma V.F. Omale D. Onuche R.O. Nayo J. S. Abimaje Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 6 1 Review of Reverse Osmosis as Green Technology against Water Supply: Challenges and the way Forward https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/149 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 726-737</strong></p> <p><strong>Ahamefula A. Ahuchaogu<sup>*</sup> and Chukwuemeka T. Adu</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 19 September 2020/Accepted 02 October 2020</strong></p> <p>Contaminated water can be treated and be re-used but where portable water supply is not available, implementation of reverse osmosis technology is capable of increasing the volume of water supply. This paper reviewed the technology behind reverse osmosis, their proportional utilization, methods classification, expected technical problems and solutions that are connected with its operation. Desalination is admitted as one of the major application areas of reverse osmosis program.&nbsp; The review acknowledges fouling, scale formation and corrosion as the major challenges that can hinder the operation of reverse osmosis plants and recommended precautional methods during design, testing and implementation of reverse osmosis plants.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahamefula A. Ahuchaogu Chukwuemeka T. Adu Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 6 1 Heavy metals contamination of Anambra River https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/146 <p><strong>Communication In Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(1): 714-721</strong></p> <p><strong>Emeka Chima Ogoko*, Nkoli Mgbemana, Henrietta Ijeoma Kelle and Osiri Amarachi Jonah</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 19 August 2020/Accepted 26 September 2020</strong></p> <p>The need for continuous monitoring of the influence of heavy metal rich waste on the quality of water from Anambra is necessary because the river plays major roles in the life of the people. Concentrations of some heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer Cd and the results obtained were compared with permissible limits stipulated by some regulatory bodies (Standard Organization of Nigeria, European Union and World Health Organization standards). The results obtained indicated observable mean concentrations of 0.046, 0.032, 0.032, 0.151, 0.032, 0.053, 0.031, 0.032, 0.060 and 0.030 mg/L for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, , Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg respectively. The measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg were comparable higher than WHO, SON and EU permissible limits. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and As were lower than WHO maximum contamination levels. The pollution index of Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn and Hg were above threshold value of 1.0, indicating high level of contamination of water samples from Anambra River.</p> Emeka Chima Ogoko* Nkoli Mgbemana Kelle Henrietta Ijeoma Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 6 1 Effect of Isoberlina Wood Fillers on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PVC Composites https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/141 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 706-713</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 27 August 2020/Accepted 24 September 2020</strong></p> <p>Mechanical and thermal properties of Isoberlina (IS) wood reinforced polyvinyl chloride composites have been studied. The IS fibre was treated with sodium hydroxide solution to boast the adhesion between the hydrophilic natural fibre and the hydrophobic plastic matrix. The percentage fibre loading was varied from 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 to 24. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) technique was used to investigate the effect of Isoberlina wood powder on the thermal properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mechanical properties: ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elastic modulus and hardness showed an extensive improvement compared to the unreinforced PVC. DMA results showed that composite with 12 wt % IS have higher glass transition temperature and better stiffness stability at elevated temperature than the unreinforced PVC. Isoberlina wood powder can thus serve as a valuable reinforcement in the development of polymer composites.</p> Uwaiss Yusuf Paul A. P. Mamza Casmir Emmanuel Gimba Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 6 1 Sorption Studies on the Removal of Industrial Dye Aniline Yellow From Aqueous Solution Using Surfactant Modified Iron Filings https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/139 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020 6(1): 675-687</strong></p> <p><strong>Comfort M. Ngwu*</strong><strong>, Okoche K. Amadi, Augustine C. Egwu and Ebelechi C. Lucy </strong></p> <p><strong>Received 24 August 2020/Accepted 08 September 2020</strong></p> <p>The potential of iron filings for efficient removal of aniline yellow (a cationic dye) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The iron filings were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR techniques. To remove aniline yellow, the surface of the iron filings was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated and optimized. Dye adsorption equilibrium data fitted well into Temkin isotherm and Redlich Peterson isotherm. The adsorption process was pH-dependent and the results indicate that the optimum pH for maximum adsorption occurred at pH 8.0 for the modified and pH 6.0 for the unmodified adsorbents having&nbsp;&nbsp; maximum&nbsp;&nbsp; removal efficiencies of&nbsp;&nbsp; 95.5 and 82 % respectively. Kinetic studies for aniline yellow adsorption showed rapid sorption dynamics according to the second-order kinetic model, suggesting that chemisorption must have played a major role in the adsorption process. Studies on the effect of temperature showed that adsorption capacity increased with increase in temperature for both adsorbents. The results indicate that, SDS-coated iron filings can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.</p> Comfort M. Ngwu* Okoche K. Amadi Augustine C. Egwu Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-12 2020-09-12 6 1 Evaluation of mineral in the indigenous and industrially produced soya milk in the Anyigba, Kogi State. https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/131 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(2): 688-693</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 17 April 2020/Accepted 20 May 2020</strong></p> <p>The aim of this research is to assess some mineral elements in both local and commercial produced soya milk. The samples from locally and industrially produced soy milk were digested with nitric acid and determined at appropriate wavelength with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of the selected elements are: 180 ± 0.02 (K), 1.50 ± 0.02 (Mg), 0.63 ± 0.01 (Fe), 1.50 ± 0.01 (Zn) and 4.90 ± 0.01 (Mn) but Na was not detectable (ND) in local soy milk. Whereas the mean concentrations (mg/kg) in commercially produced soy milk are 160 ± 0.01 (K), 2.12 ± 0.02 (Fe), and 2.63 ± 0.01 (Mn) but Na, Mg and Zn were ND. &nbsp;The concentrations of these elements were compared with Food and Agriculture Organization as well as World Health Organization nutritional recommendation standards, in order to ascertain their regulatory compliance. The results showed that locally made soy milk was rich in micro-nutrients than the commercially produced ones and also, a good source of Mg and Zn.</p> A. Yahaya G. Ayeni A. U. Ochala R.A. Larayetan A. D. Onoja T. C. Omale V.F. Omale J. A. Akor Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 6 1 Chemical Information from GCMS of Ethanol Extract of Solanum melongena (Aubergine) Leaf https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/128 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020 6(1): 658-668</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 12 May 2020/Accepted 30 August 2020</strong></p> <p>Aubergine is often regarded as a local vegetable that is rarely consumed in Nigeria and other countries of the world. However, based on some nutritional data reported for this plant, the present study is aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituent of ethanol extract of this vegetable using GCMS. The results obtained indicated that ethanol extract of aubergine contains&nbsp; 1,1,3-trimethyl-cyclopentane (1.66%), alpha-undecane(2.21%),3,5-di-t-butylphenol(4.42%),6-methyl-1-heptanol (1.38%), dimethylmalononitrile (0.28%),&nbsp; (5Z)-9-methyl-5-undecene (1.10%),metholene 2216 (11.60%), n-hexadecanoic acid (4.97%), ethyl stearate (2.21%), methyl linolelaidate (17.96%), methyl ester 9-octadecanoic acid (18.78%), 13Z)-13-octadecenal (8.29%), trans-3-oxabicyclo[4,4,0] decane -(6.63%), 5-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyra -zine (1.66%), oleamide (2.49%), E-9-tetradecenal (5.52%) and&nbsp; 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-heptadiene (8.84%). &nbsp;Most of the detected phytochemicals have several biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antiepileptic and other activities. Some were found to have some industrial roles indicating that much can be derived from this vegetable than it is currently known.</p> Emeka Chima Ogoko Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 6 1 Microbial Contamination of Infant Diapers https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/159 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(1): 767-773</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Eteyen A. Uko., &nbsp;Nkeneke E. Akpainyang., Emem I. Ntekpere., Imaobong T. Adenugba and Kate O. Effiong</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 16 October 2020/Accepted 24 November 2020</strong></p> <p>This study investigated the microbial contamination of infant diapers. Five (5) different samples of infant diapers were used for this study. The results revealed that samples were contaminated by microorganisms. The highest bacterial count was recorded in sample 1 with a total bacterial count of 2.0 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g, followed by sample 3 with a total bacterial count of 1.4 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g. Sample 4 had a bacterial count of 1.3 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g, sample 5 had a total bacterial count of 1.2 x 10<sup>3 </sup>&nbsp;CFU/g while the least bacterial count was recorded in sample 2 with a total &nbsp;bacterial count of 1.0 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g. The bacterial genera identified and their percentage frequency of occurrence were Bacillus sp.(29%), Staphylococcus sp.(35%), Pseudomonas sp.(12 %), Streptococcus sp.(24 %),while ,E.coli and Proteus sp. had&nbsp; 26 %&nbsp; percentage &nbsp;frequency of occurrence each respectively. The fungal count ranged between 1.0 &nbsp;x 10<sup>3</sup>&nbsp; &nbsp;to 1.6 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/g.&nbsp; The fungal isolates identified from this study and their percentage frequency of occurrence were Candida albicans (24 %), Penicillium sp.(19 %), Rhizopus sp.(10 %), Aspergillus sp.(14 %) and Mucor sp.(8 % ). Susceptibility results indicated that 95 % of that bacterial isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Levofloxacin, Oflaxacin, Ampicillin, Septrin, Ceprorex, Amoxil, Streptomycin, and Rifampicin. Five bacterial isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotics. E.coli. was resistant to Pefloxacin, Ceprorex, and Ampicillin. Pseudomonas sp. was resistant to &nbsp;Pefloxacin and Gentamycin. Proteus sp. was resistant to Septrin and Pefloxacin while Bacillus sp was resistant to Amoxil, Rifampicin and Chloramphenicol. The presence of these microbial contaminants in diapers could be attributed to existing of microorganisms in the raw materials during processing and manufacturing, packaging, storage, handling &nbsp;and transportation of this product. Hence, a routine microbial study is thus suggested</p> Eteyen A. Uko Emem I. Ntekpere Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 6 1 Theoretical and Biochemical Information studies on Compounds Detected in GCMS of Ethanol Extract of Chromolaena odorate Leaf https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/126 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 635-648</strong></p> <p>In order to investigate the presence of chemical and biological active molecules in Chromolaena odorate leaf, ethanol extract of the was subjected to GCMS analysis. The results obtained indicated that most abundant phytochemicals detected in the GCMS analysis of ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorate&nbsp; leaf were octadecanoic acid (11.35%), methyl elaidate(19.02%) and&nbsp; erucic acid (20.55%). Others were &nbsp;&nbsp;6-methyl-1-heptanol, 3-tetradecene, phenol 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethyl)- (3,5-di-tert-butylphenol), 1-methyl-2-(3-methylpentyl)-cyclopropane, 9-methyl-5-undecene, iminodiacetonitrile, metholene, 2-ethyl-heptanoic acid, 1-nitrododecane, 4,4-dimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-ol, cyclohexylpropanamide, nobilinem6-hydroxy, decamethylene glycol, 3,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-hexadiene and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylcyclopentane. Application of physicochemical and molecular descriptors analysis indicated that nobiline, 6-hydroxy is leaf the most reactive component of the phytochemical while 1,1,3,3-tetramethylcyclopentane is the least reactive. Chemical and biological activities of the compounds in ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorate leaf have been documented in this work. Docking of some of the biological active component is recommended for further study.</p> Augustine Odiba Aikoye Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 6 1 The Recycling of Sawdust Waste into Particleboard Using Starch-Based Modified Adhesive https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/157 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Authors: Emmanuel Michael Umoh* and Edidiong Sunday Sam</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 02 November 2020, Accepted 17 November 2020</strong></p> <p>The challenges associated with the management of wastes from the cassava processing and timber industries necessitated an investigation into the possibility of implementing recycling approach to produced particle board from these wastes. Particleboards were produced from wood saw dust using various compositions of modified starch adhesives. The product obtained were evaluated for density, moisture content, hardness, flexural strength, water absorption and thickness swelling. The results obtained indicated that the density ranged from 753 to 798 kg/m<sup>3</sup>, moisture content ranged from 14.87 to 16.67 %, hardness ranged from 9.02 to 9.31 N/nm<sup>2</sup>, flexural strength ranged from 1.31 to 1.45 MPa, water absorption capacity at 24 h ranged from 1.06 to 9.31 %, thickness swelling ranged from 4.55 to 4.78%. The products were in conformity with IS 3087 (2005) and ANSI A 208.1 (1993) standards and could go for medium density particleboard.</p> Emmanuel Michael Umoh Edidiong Sunday Sam Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 6 1