Communication in Physical Sciences https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> University Of Nigeria Nsukka en-US Communication in Physical Sciences 2645-2448 On the Efficiency of Health Systems in West Africa: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/172 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(2): 845-851</strong></p> <p><strong>Author: Micheal Nnamdi Nwakobi</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 24 July 2020/Accepted 29 December 2020</strong></p> <p>Data Envelopment Analysis was used to determine the efficiency of health systems of 16 countries in West Africa. We attempt to provide explanations on the inefficiencies of health systems in West Africa. This method allows us to evaluate the ability of each country to transform its sanitary “inputs” into health “outputs”. Our results show that, on average, the health systems of these countries have an efficiency score between 32% and 96% of their maximum level</p> Micheal Nnamdi Nwakobi Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Sorption Kinetics of Pb2+, Cd2+ And Ni2+ Ions Sorption from Aqueous Medium Using Butterfly Pea (Centrosema pubescens) Seed Pod Powder https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/170 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(2): 852-862</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Okoche K. Amadi*, Gentle C. Onwuasoghianya, Innocent A. Okoro, and Nneamaka N. Ozuluonye</strong></p> <p>Metal detoxification of waste water and industrial effluents is significant in preserving aquatic life especially in the current era of increasing environmental contamination from industrial and domestic wastes. In this study, the batch sorption process was employed to investigate the effect of pH and time on the adsorption mechanism of Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup> and Ni<sup>2+</sup> on the surface of Centrosema pubescens seed pod. The optimum time and pH for maximum adsorption of the three heavy metal ions were 120 min and 6.0 respectively. The adsorption process was best described by a pseudo second order kinetic models which provided data that were in best agreement with experimental data compared to a pseudo first order model. However, the mechanism occurred through both intra particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The transport mechanism for the process involved both intra-particle and liquid</p> Okoche K. Amadi Gentle C. Onwuasoghianya Innocent A. Okoro Nneamaka N. Ozuluonye Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Protonation in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules: Same Molecule, Different Proton Affinities https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/167 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(2):835-844</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Emmanuel E. Etim<sup>* </sup>Oko Emmanuel, Godwin and Sulaiman Adeoye Olagboye</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 22 March 2020/Accepted 28 December 2020</strong></p> <p>Every heteronuclear diatomic molecular species has two possible sites for protonation giving rise to two possible proton affinity values for a single molecule but experimentally only one proton affinity value is measured for each molecular species with no information regarding where the proton is attached in the molecule. This present work aimed at calculating the proton affinity (PA) of heteronuclear diatomic molecules, specifying which site favors protonation and observing common and rare trends in proton Affinity. In this work, quantum chemical calculations were employed to calculate PA of nitrogen (I) oxide, oxygen monofluoride, carbon(ii)oxie, phosphorus monoxide, silicon(II)oxide, silicon monosulfide, phosphorus mononitride, carbon monosulphide, &nbsp;and phosphorus monosulfide. The indicated that in the heteronuclear diatomic molecules, the best site of protonation corresponds to the most stable protonated analogue, the experimentally assigned value also corresponds to the most stable protonated analogue. These results also aid in indicating the possible factors which could influence the best site of protonation such as&nbsp; bonding nature, stability of the protonated analogue, electron density/electronegativity&nbsp; and Periodic trend.</p> Emmanuel E. Etim Oko Emmanuel, Godwin Copyright (c) 2020 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Effect of Aluminum Tetraoxosulphate (VI) hydrate (Alum) On Some Water Quality Parameters https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/165 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(2): 823-826</strong></p> <p><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: black;"><strong>Authors:</strong> Idongesit Ignatius Udo* and Richard Alexis Ukpe</span></p> <p><strong>Received 21 December 2020/Accepted 23 December 2020</strong></p> <p>The need to acquire portable water has long been realized by the greater part of the rural area population. However, the technology of purifying contaminated water is not accessible but there are options that are mostly accepted as a better option for reducing the level of contaminants in polluted water. One of such local technology involves the use of alum (aluminum sulphate). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of alum on turbidity, COD, pH, chloride content, sulphate content, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, ammonium, and conductivity of contaminated water. Polluted water samples were collected from some local wells (designed to collect erosion water after rain). Analysis of the quality parameters before and after the addition of alum indicated a significant reduction in all the analyzed parameters except chloride, salinity, and alkalinity. Therefore, has the tendency to remove contaminants from water except for salinity.</p> Idongesit Ignatius Udo Richard Alexis Ukpe Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 6 2 Sorption Kinetics of Pb2+, Cd2+ And Ni2+ Ions Sorption from Aqueous Medium Using Butterfly Pea (Centrosema pubescens) Seed Pod Powder https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/173 <p><strong>Authors: Okoche K. Amadi*, Gentle C. Onwuasoghianya, Innocent A. Okoro, and Nneamaka N. Ozuluonye</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 27 November 2020/Accepted 29 December 2020</strong></p> <p>Metal detoxification of waste water and industrial effluents is significant in preserving aquatic life especially in the current era of increasing environmental contamination from industrial and domestic wastes. In this study, the batch sorption process was employed to investigate the effect of pH and time on the adsorption mechanism of Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup> and Ni<sup>2+</sup> on the surface of Centrosema pubescens seed pod. The optimum time and pH for maximum adsorption of the three heavy metal ions were 120 min and 6.0 respectively. The adsorption process was best described by a pseudo second-order kinetic models which provided data that were in best agreement with experimental data compared to a pseudo first-order model. However, the mechanism occurred through both intra particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The transport mechanism for the process involved both intra-particle and liquid.</p> Okoche K. Amadi Gentle C. Onwuasoghianya Innocent A. Okoro Nneamaka N. Ozuluonye Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Isolation and Characterization of Stigmasterol and Β-Sitosterol from the leaves of Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/171 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Science 2020, 6(2):883-868</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ugochukwu Clinton Akwada*, Okenwa Uchenna Igwe, Friday Chisom and Juliet Chiamaka Ibe - Diala</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Received 27 November 2020/Accepted 27 December 2020</strong></p> <p>In view of its unique medicinal value and other applications, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were isolated from&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Emilia coccinea leaves. Extraction of the compounds from the plant was carried out using Soxhlet apparatus, while column and thin layer chromatographic techniques were used for isolation and purification, which afforded white crystalline powder. Structural elucidation using <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC followed by comparison, with literature values confirmed the isolated compounds as stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. The isolated compounds may contribute to the medicinal properties of E. coccinea. This is the first isolation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from E. coccinea.</p> Ugochukwu Clinton Akwada Okenwa Uchenna Igwe Friday Chisom Juliet Chiamaka Ibe – Diala Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 On the Efficiency of Health Systems in West Africa: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/169 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(2): 845-851</strong></p> <p><strong>Author: Micheal Nnamdi Nwakobi</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 24 July 2020/Accepted 29 December 2020</strong></p> <p>Data Envelopment Analysis was used to determine the efficiency of health systems of 16 countries in West Africa. We attempt to provide explanations on the inefficiencies of health systems in West Africa. This method allows us to evaluate the ability of each country to transform its sanitary “inputs” into health “outputs”. Our results show that, on average, the health systems of these countries have an efficiency score between 32% and 96% of their maximum level</p> Micheal Nnamdi Nwakobi Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Volatile Constituents of the Leaves and Stem of Justicia secunda Vahl https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/166 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(2):827-834</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Edet O. Odokwo and Martha S. Onifade</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 19 December 2020/Accepted 27 December 2020</strong></p> <p>Volatile constituents of leaves and stem of <em>Justicia secunda Vahl</em> have been investigated. The respective plant parts were extracted using hydrodistillation techniques and the volatile constituents were quantitatively analysed with Gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). The results deduced from the spectra of the plant stem and leaf indicated the presence of twenty-four volatile compounds consisting of two (2) monoterpenoids, four (4) sesquiterpenes, one (1) sesquiterpenoid and seventeen (17) non-terpenoids. The isolated compounds and their concentrations were diethyl phthalate (28.71%), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (52.52%), (3aR, 4R, 7R)- 1,4,9,9-tetramethyl -3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-3a,7-methanoazulen-2-one (6.71%), 13-methyl-Z-14-nonacosene (1.08), 5(1H)-azulenone (34.67%), guaia-1(10), 11-diene (9.54%), γ-elemene (6.59%), 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (5.97%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (5.95%), trans-13-octadecenoic acid (5.01%), 1-ethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-phenyl ethynyl)-cyclopropane (4.10%),&nbsp; 9(1H)-phenanthrone (3.28%), longifolene (2.93%), 2-hydroxycyclopentadecanone (2.92%), patchoulene (2.59%), 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (1.72%), oleic acid (1.26%) and 2-octylcyclopropaneoctanal (1.10%). The present study indicates that the stem and leaf of <em>J. secunda Vahl</em> is rich in volatile compounds that can provide useful medicinal or other industrial purposes.</p> Edet O. Odokwo Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 6 2 Evaluation of Aquifer Hydraulic Parameters in Gashua Using Electrical Resistivity Method https://journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/164 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 6(2):809-821</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong>Agada Livinus Emeka* and Adetola Sunday Oniku</p> <p><strong>Received 21 November 2020/Accepted 20 December 2020</strong></p> <p>The aquifer hydraulic parameters of Gashua in Yobe State were evaluated (using electrical resistivity survey method) to describe the hydraulic characteristics of the groundwater in the area. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) with Schlumberger electrode configuration was deployed to obtain the geoelectric data. The results obtained reveal that the transmissivity and porosity of the aquifer were moderately high. The aquifer thickness in the study area ranged from 66.7 m to 120 m with an average value of 84.32 m. The aquifer resistivity in the study area ranged from 100.7 Ωm to 350 Ωm with an average value of 280 Ωm. The transmissivity of the aquifer ranged from 110.91 m<sup>2</sup>/day to 348.88 m<sup>2</sup>/day with an average value of 182.55 m<sup>2</sup>/day. The porosity of the aquifer ranged from 27.7% to 32.9% with an average value of 28.8%. Contour maps developed from the estimated values of the aquifer hydraulic parameters (hydraulic conductivity, porosity, resistivity, formation factor, and transmissivity) revealed that the study area has great potential for the production of groundwater. The magnitude and the spatial distribution of the aquifer parameters in the study area also confirmed that the aquifer has moderate groundwater production and sustainability.</p> Agada Livinus Emeka Adetola Sunday Oniku Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 6 2