Communication in Physical Sciences <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> University Of Nigeria Nsukka en-US Communication in Physical Sciences 2645-2448 Optimization of Activated Carbon Preparation from Corncob Wastewater Treatment <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences 2021, 7(2): 5</strong><strong>8</strong><strong>-6</strong><strong>8</strong></p> <p><strong>Nathaniel Atamas Bahago, Gideon Wyasu and Vincent Chijioke Ugboaja</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 29 October 2020/Accepted 26 April 2021</strong></p> <p>Activated Carbon were produced from corncob, using phosphoric (H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>) acid as activating agent, and it was used for the removal of heavy metal ion in waste water. The Activated Carbon was produced at a temperature of 800℃ for two hours and batch adsorption study was carried out on the corncob activated carbon and its confirmed that at a temperature of 450℃ with Acid concentration of 30% with an Impregnation Ratio of 1.5, the yield was found to be 55.7% and 528 in (Mg/g) which is good for the removal of lead (ii) metal ion in water. The Activated Carbon produced was characterized to have a good mesoporous structure and thus recommended for the treatment of waste water.</p> Nathaniel Atamas Bahago Gideon Wyasu Vincent Chijioke Ugboaja Mary Gojeh Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 7 2 Comparative Study of Proximate and Elemental Composition of Banana Peels and Palm Bunch as Substitutes for Preparing Alkaline Ash for Domestic Consumption <p><strong>Authors: Imeh J. Okop<sup>*</sup>, and Richard A. Ukpe</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 26 January 2021/Accepted 02 April 2021</strong></p> <p>Potash is commonly used in numerous traditional dishes and is majorly prepared using limestone, which may be relatively scarce in some region. This study seeks to produced and analysed potash from banana peel and palm bunch in order to compare their proximate and elemental composition. The results of the analysis revealed that<strong> i</strong>norganic (ash) contents were 12.78, 21.40 and 18.60 mg/l for potash produced from banana peel, palm bunch and limestone. Corresponding values for fibre (3.65, 2.41, 18.60 mg/l), lipid (17.87, 16.50 and 13.56 mg/l), carbohydrate (5.23, 6.03 and 6.00 mg/l) and energy value (423.73, 387.26 and 342.28 J) were also estimated. The samples showed high concentration of calcium and potassium (which are essential elements), relatively low concentrations of iron and manganese (which are trace elements) and low concentrations of lead and cadmium, which are toxic metals. Although potash from banana peel and palm bunch waste displayed comparative nutrient and elemental functions, their usefulness maybe limited by the presence of heavy metals if not properly processed or checked.</p> Imeh J. Okop Richard A. Ukpe Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 7 2 Evaluation of Time Complexities of Bayesian Vs Hybridized Word Stemming Techniques for Advanced Fee Fraud Emails Filtering <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 7(2):82-86</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Okunade Oluwasogo, &nbsp;Adekunle,&nbsp; Afolorunso Adenrele and Adebayo Adegboyega</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 18 December 2020/Accepted 20 April 2021</strong></p> <p>Time execution of content-based spam filter was investigated using the Bayesian statistical algorithm against Bayesian statistical algorithm incorporated with a word stemming. The execution time intervals for the algorithms implementation of the two techniques were evaluated by subjecting the filters to manipulated and non-manipulate spam mails. The experiment shown that both single technique (Bayesian) and combined techniques (Bayesian incorporated with word stemming) executed suspicious terms manipulated mails faster (within a short time) compared to non-manipulate suspicious terms mails. Combined algorithms performed better and faster in a sophisticated and manipulated environment. The algorithm is more rugged and performed better when suspicious term/tokens were manipulated to deceit the filter.</p> Okunade Oluwasogo Adekunle Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 7 2 An Economic Production Quantity model with shortages, a variable lead time and a variable holding cost <p><strong>Communication in Physical Science, 2021, 7(2): 69-72</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 08 April 2020/Accepted 02 May 2021</strong></p> <p>An economic production quantity model with shortages, a variable lead time and a variable holding cost represents a common real-life observation. It provides quantitative insight into a serious practical problem where costs are amplified due to production delay. Previous models incorporating variable lead time assume that the holding cost is constant for the entire inventory cycle. A mathematical model has been developed for determining the optimal production quantity and the optimal cycle time. The holding cost is considered as an increasing function of the ordering cycle length. Differential calculus is used for finding the optimal solution. A numerical example is used to validate the proposed model.</p> Nwakobi, Micheal Nnamdi Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 7 2 Physical, Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Waste Paper Reinforced Waste High Density Polyethylene Biocomposite <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2021, 7(2): 47-57</strong></p> <p><strong>Physical, Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Waste Paper Reinforced Waste High-Density Polyethylene Biocomposite</strong></p> <p><strong>Tajudeen Kolawole Bello, Muhammed Tijani Isa, Solomon Olayinka Falope</strong></p> <p>This paper presents the physical, static, and dynamic mechanical properties of a biocomposite fabricated from wastepaper reinforced in waste high-density polyethylene. The produced composites had varying amounts of shredded waste paper from 0 to 50 wt% at an interval of 10wt%. The size-reduced paper was mixed with the waste high-density polyethylene in a two-roll mill set at 160 <sup>o</sup>C and 79 rev/min. The mixture was then compressed to 4 MPa at 150 <sup>o</sup>C and allowed to cure at 60 <sup>o</sup>C for 24 hrs. The results obtained indicated that water absorption increased with filler content due the hydrophilic nature of natural fibers, tensile stress and strain however reduced. Modulus of elasticity recorded the highest value at 40 wt% wastepaper in the composite. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that at 40 <sup>o</sup>C, the 40 wt% recorded the highest storage modulus, greater than unreinforced material by 40%. Higher filler content recorded increase in damping parameter of the materials. Increasing filler content also introduced a new glass transition behavior. The new glass transition (α) Tg was detected between 120 <sup>o</sup>C and 145 <sup>o</sup>C. Although elongation increased with temperature, it decreased with filler content. These properties contribute to establishing concept of waste reuse and recycling as a viable technique in sustainable engineering.</p> T. K. Bello M. T. Isa S. O. Falope Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 7 2 Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes Synthesized by Green Mechanochemical Method and their Antimicrobial Studies <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2021, 7(2):67-75</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Sani* and </strong><strong>I. T Siraj </strong></p> <p><strong>Received 15 April 2021/Accepted 07 May 2021</strong></p> <p>Schiff base ligand derived from condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2-aminobenzothiazole were synthesized via mechanochemical technique and used for the preparation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The Schiff base and complexes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, Thermogravitric/thermal analysis, CHN analysis, solubility test, conductivity measurement and magnetic susceptibility measurement. Infrared spectral study indicated a strong band in the spectra of the Schiff base at 1603 cm<sup>-1</sup> assigned to azomethine stretching vibration. The azomethine band shifted to 1621 and 1599 cm<sup>-1</sup> in the IR spectra of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes respectively indicating the formation of complex compounds. The decomposition temperatures of the complexes are in the range of 240 - 264 <sup>o</sup>C indicating good thermal stability. Molar conductance values are in the range of 6.34 - 9.8 Ohm<sup>-1</sup>cm<sup>2</sup> mol<sup>-1</sup>, indicating non electrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes in ethanol. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicated that Zn(II) complex is diamagnetic while Cu(II) complex is&nbsp; paramagnetic and exhibit magnetic moment of 2.059 BM, the values correspond to the square planar geometry. The theoretical and experimental analytical data of C, H and N for the Schiff base and complexes are in good agreement. The Schiff base ligand and metal complexes have been studied for microbial activity using pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal pathogens (Candida albican and Asperigillus fumigatus) by agar well diffusion method. The results indicated that metal complexes (07 - 19 mm diameter inhibition zones) are more active than Schiff base ligand (07 - 14 mm diameters) against the test organisms.</p> S. Sani I. T Siraj Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 7 2