Communication in Physical Sciences <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> en-US (Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy) (Prof. U.C. Okoro) Tue, 26 Sep 2023 10:57:31 -0400 OJS 60 Comparative Analysis of Methods of Activated Carbon Surface Area Determination <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 204-212</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Stephen Eyije &nbsp;Abechi*, Casmir Emmanuel Gimba, Adamu Uzairu and &nbsp;Odike Jotham &nbsp;Ocholi</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>28 July&nbsp; 2023/Accepted 20 November 2023</em></strong></p> <p>This work sought to determine the surface area (SA) of prepared activated carbons from palm kernel shells by two methods and to do a comparative analysis of the results obtained. The methylene blue adsorption test (MBT) gave a surface area in the range of 418 to 544 m<sup>2</sup>/g for the nine prepared activated carbons labelled A1 to C3. The surface area (S<sub>N2</sub>) obtained by nitrogen gas adsorption&lt; However, ranged from 17 to 217 m<sup>2</sup>/g. The surface area obtained for the prepared activated carbons by the MBT decreased in the following order: A1 &gt; A2 &gt; C1 &gt; A3 &gt; B1 &gt; B3 &gt; B2 &gt; C2 &gt; C3, while the BET surface area obtained by nitrogen adsorption for the activated carbons was in the order: A1 &gt; A2 &gt; A3 &gt; C1 &gt; B3 &gt; B1 &gt; B2 &gt; C3 &gt; C2. The order shows a comparable trend and it can be deduced that while the MBT measured the mesopore volume of the activated carbon, the nitrogen gas adsorption measured the micropore volume.&nbsp; The MBT was therefore in good agreement with the nitrogen gas adsorption method and can therefore provide a cheaper and affordable method to characterize the surface area of activated carbon.</p> Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casmir Emmanuel Gimba , Adamu Uzairu, Odike Jotham Ocholi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Sat, 25 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0500 A Unique Generalization of Einstein Field Equation; Pathway for Continuous Generation of Gravitational Waves <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 122-129</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Koffa Durojaiye Jude, Omonile Jocob Funsho, Oladimeji Enock Oluwole, Edogbanya Helen Olaronke, Eghaghe Osas Stephen,&nbsp; Vivian Onechojo Obaje, Ibrahim Toyin Taofiq</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>04 January 2023/Accepted 30 October 2023</em></strong></p> <p>In this theoretical exploration, we introduce a novel extension to the Einstein field Equations by incorporating a newly defined metric tensor, termed the “Golden Metric Tensor”. This approach aims to complement and expand upon the well-established Einstein field equations devoid of its initial incompleteness thereby offering a fresh perspective on the nature of gravity and its interplay with spacetime. Our result is found to be mathematically most elegant, physically most natural, and satisfactory for application to a sinusoidal time distribution of mass within a spheroidal body to generate gravitational waves.</p> Koffa Durojaiye Jude, Omonile Jocob Funsho, Oladimeji Enock Oluwole, Edogbanya Helen Olaronke, Eghaghe Osas Stephen, Vivian Onechojo Obaje, Ibrahim Toyin Taofiq Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Sat, 11 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Petrographic Studies of Migmatite-Gneiss, Quartzites and Pegmatites Complex in Crusher Area of Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 73-84</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ajogwu Cordelia Odinaka<sup>*</sup>, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Christopher Dalom, Aaron Enechojo Auduson, Yohanna Andarawus, Frankie Ojo Balogun, Nengak Musa, Ibrahim Yusuf Anzaku, Pam Dajack Dung,</strong> <strong>Andrew Changde. Nanfa, Okiyi, Ijeoma Millicent, Sadiq Mohammed Salisu and Tolulope Idiat Ogunsanya</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 11 August 2023/Accepted 30 September 2023</em></strong></p> <p>The studied Area is situated in Lokoja Local Government Area of Kogi state, this forms part of the Lokoja sheet on latitudes 07°49'N to 07°51'N and longitude 006°38E to 006°40'E and covers an area of 200km<sup>2 </sup>on a scale of 1: 50,000. The study area is situated in the southern Bida Basin and the Basement complex of Nigeria. However, the major rocks encountered during the fieldwork was migmatitegneiss, porphyroblastic gneiss and pegmatite which is the parts of the migmatite-gneiss complex of the Nigerian Basement. Laboratory analysis (thin section) was conducted to determine the mineralogical composition of the rocks, the minerals include quartz, feldspars, micas and opaque minerals. The research area is characterized by overflowing groundwater which supplies streams and rivers for agricultural and domestic usage. Economically, the major economic minerals of the rocks include feldspar, quartz and micas. The feldspars if in large quantity will be mined for ceramic factories for the production of ceramics, tiles and fillers and enhancer in paint, plastic and rubber. Large clasts of quartz also occur in the pegmatite and can be mined and used to produce abrasive minerals. Quartz can be used in railway blasts, they serve as decorative stones, and they are also used in covering of walls and roofing. The quartzite and gneissic rocks in the study area can be blasted and cut into various sizes and shapes and thus be used for road construction and building design. A variety of uses for metamorphosed gneiss exist in buildings, such as ornamental stone applications etc.</p> Ajogwu Cordelia Odinaka, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Christopher Dalom, Aaron Enechojo Auduson, Andarawus Yohanna, Frankie Ojo Balogun, Nengak Musa, Ibrahim Yusuf Anzaku, Pam Dajack Dung, Andrew Changde. Nanfa , Okiyi, Ijeoma Millicent, Sadiq Mohammed Salisu, Tolulope Idiat Ogunsanya Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Green Synthesis of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles Using Phyllanthus Niruri and Assessment of Its Antibacterial Activity in Wastewater Treatment <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 85-99</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: unusa Habibat, Omoniyi&nbsp; K. Isreal, Stephen E. Abechi, Aroh A. Oyibo, O</strong><strong>wolabi A. Awwal and Imam Naziru</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 11 March 2023/Accepted 30 September 2023</em></strong></p> <p>Given the existing and increasing need to reduce the volume of wastewater in the global society due to their potential threat to public health, this study was designed to synthesise titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiONPs) for the remediation of industrial wastewater contaminated by microorganisms.&nbsp;&nbsp; The TiONPs were synthesized using a green approach, which applied methanol extract Phyllanthus niruri&nbsp; as a precursor.The synthesized TiONPs were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The UV-Vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorption peaks at 401 nm and 569 nm resulting from the excitation of titanium oxide NPs. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) revealed the presence of alcohol, phenols and carboxylic acids and therefore showed possible interaction between the nanoparticles and the phytochemicals in the plant extract. the The O-Ti-O bonds vibrational band at 470 cm<sup>-1</sup> due to anatase confirmed that the product of the synthesis is TiONPs. the The&nbsp; nanoparticles and also displayed a spherical shape and a tetragonal geometry with particle sizes ranging from&nbsp; 20-100 nm in diameter (The TiONPs showed a significant antimicrobial activity by decreasing the the colony forming unit (CFU) of Escherichia coli from 3CFU/50 ml to zero CFU/50 ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of titanium oxide nanoparticles against bacteria was 12.50 µg/ml (Escherichia coli). The presence of the TiONPs correlated shifted the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value&nbsp; to 25.00 µg/ml (Escherichia coli) The synthesized nanoparticles are therefore documented as an excellent antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli, which is a known organism responsible for several health challenges through water</p> Yunusa Habibat, Omoniyi K. Isreal, Stephen Abechi, Aroh A. Oyibo, Owolabi A. Awwal, Imam Naziru Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Annual Effective Dose Due to Background Gamma Radiation in Buni Gari, Yobe State <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 67-72</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Habu Tela Abba<sup>*</sup>, Jasini Waida, Busari Kahinde Abdulsemiu</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 07 May 2023/Accepted 27 September 2023</strong></p> <p>In this study, we aimed to assess the levels of gamma radiation both outdoors and indoors in Buni Gari, Yobe State. Our goal was to determine the annual effective dose associated with gamma radiation and to investigate whether the presence of active quarrying companies around the town has had any notable impact on the background radiation levels. Geiger Muller (G. M) detector known as X5C plus, was used to carry out the measurement. To ensure the accuracy of our readings, the G.M detector was positioned one meter above ground level to minimize ground-related effects. During outdoor measurements, we maintained a distance of at least six meters from nearby building walls to avoid any interference from the building materials. Our findings indicated that the average gamma dose rates for outdoor and indoor measurements were 55.8 ± 8.2 nSv/h and 62 ± 6.4 nSv/h, respectively. We calculated the average annual effective dose resulting from background gamma radiation to be 0.372 mSv, which was found to be lower than the global average value of 0.48 mSv. In conclusion, the average annual effective dose from background gamma radiation in Buni&nbsp;Gari was below the global average. When we compared our results with a previous study conducted in 2019 to determine the effective dose of environmental gamma radiation in the same town, we found that the presence of quarrying activities around the town over four years did not significantly change the annual effective dose of Buni Gari</p> Habu Tela Abba, Jasini Waida, Busari Kahinde Abdulsemiu Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Frequency Distribution and Antibiotics Sensitivity of E. coli from Local Muturu Raw Cow Milk <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 31-39</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Imaobong T. Adenugba, Eteyen A. Uko and A. D. Ekpo</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 24 March 2023/Accepted:12 September 2023</strong></p> <p>Milk is widely consumed by almost all households in Nigeria and cases of manifestation of health–related problems arising from the consumption of milk are not uncommon to this study. In this study, frequency distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of Escherichia coli from raw muturu cow milk were studied and the results showed the mean standard deviation of E. coli count was highest in MC 3 with&nbsp; 3.63 ± 0.77 (P&lt;0.05). This shows that there was no significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in the total&nbsp; E. coli count among the muturu cows. The frequency occurrence of E. coli was highest&nbsp; (23.3%) in MC 1 and MC 6&nbsp; followed by MC4 (16.6%) while the least occurrence was seen in MC5(6.6%). The antibiotic susceptibility profile studied shows that ciprofloxacin had the highest sensitivity pattern of (93.3%) followed by Augmentin (83.3%) while gentamycin and tarivid had (80.0%) respectively. The isolate showed resistance to streptomycin, septum and ampicillin at (43.3%), (33.3%) and (30.0%) respectively. The study reveals the high presence of E. coli in muturu cow milk with little resistance to some antibiotics which should not be overlooked while cow herders and milk collectors should pay close attention to personal and environmental hygiene during the processing of&nbsp; raw cow milk.</p> Adenugba, Eteyen Anthony Uko Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Maximizing an Investment Portfolio for a DC Pension with a Return Clause and Proportional Administrative Charges under Weilbull Force Function <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 14-30</strong></p> <p><strong>Author: Njoku, K. N. C.</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 26 August 2023/Accepted 09 September 2023</strong></p> <p>In this paper, investment in a defined contributory (DC) pension fund system with a return clause of premium and proportional administrative charges is studied under geometric Brownian motion (GBM) and Weilbull mortality force function. To actualize this, an investment portfolio with a risk-free asset and a risky asset which follows the GBM model is considered such that the returned premium is with interest from an investment in risk-free asset and the Weilbull force function is used to determine the mortality rate of members during accumulation phase. Furthermore, the game-theoretic technique is applied to obtain an optimization problem from the extended Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation. By using the mean-variance utility and variable separation technique, an investment strategy (IS) is obtained for the risky asset comprising of the risk-free interest rate, instantaneous volatility, administrative charges, the appreciation rate of the risky asset and the mortality force function was obtained together with the efficient frontier which gives the relationship between the investment expectation and the risk involvement in the investment. Furthermore, some numerical simulations were obtained to study the impact of some sensitive parameters of the IS. It was observed that the administrative charges and the mortality rate affect the IS to be adopted. Therefore, an insight into how these parameters behave is very essential in the development of an IS</p> Njoku, K. N. C. Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 The Generalized Odd Generalized Exponential Gompertz Distribution with Applications <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 163-171</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Gulumbe S. Usman, Umar Usman, Aremu Kazeem Olalekan, Odeyale, Abideen Babatunde</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>21 October 2023/Accepted 10 November 2023</em></strong></p> <p>This study introduces the generalized odd generalized exponential Gompertz distribution. Some mathematical properties were derived, which increase the subject distribution's flexibility by allowing the model to be used for the analysis of a variety of lifetime data types with hazard rates that are monotonic, upside-down, and bathtub-shaped. The new model includes two additional parameters as a mixture of the odd exponential-G family of distributions. The observed Fisher's information matrix was constructed, and the model parameters were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Through a numerical analysis using actual data, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested model.</p> Gulumbe S. Usman, Umar Usman, Aremu Kazeem Olalekan, Odeyale, Abideen Babatunde Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Sat, 11 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Analyses amongst 3 Hybrid Controllers - MPC-HGAFSA, LQR-HGAFSA and PID-HGAFSA in a Micro Grid Power System Using MAD and RMSE as Measures of Performance Metrics <p><strong><em>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 155-162</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Godwin Ezikanyi Okey, Yusuf Jibril and Gbenga Abidemi Olarinoye</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>21 June 2023/Accepted 09 November 2023</em></strong></p> <p>Adverse effects in a power generating system, such as frequency instability, voltage profile degradation, poor power delivery and power outages, are caused by frequency and voltage fluctuations. These fluctuations are caused by load variations and generation losses, which are inevitable in a power-generating system. Power controllers such as model predictive controller (M.P.C.), linear quadratic regulator (L.Q.R.) and proportional integral derivative (P.I.D.); and controller optimizers such as genetic algorithm (G.A.), artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA)&nbsp; and particle swarm optimization (PSO) with their hybrids are often used to mitigate the aforementioned effect. This paper tends to compare the efficiency of each of the three mentioned controllers with the optimizers using mean absolute deviation (MAD) and root mean square error (RMSE) as performance metrics. The hybrid of .A.G.A. and AFSA (HGAFSA) was used to optimize each of the controllers (MPC-HGAFSA, LQR-HGAFSA and PID-HGAFSA) in a micro-grid power system. the M.P.C.- HGAFSA based approach demonstrates an outstanding frequency and voltage control capability when compared with the other two control strategies, while PID-HGAFSA-based strategy is the least performing strategy.&nbsp;</p> Godwin Ezikanyi Okey, Yusuf Jibril, G. A. Olarinoye Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Sat, 11 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Lattice Calculations and Power Distribution for Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) using Serpent Code <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023,10(1): 99-107</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Abubakar Aliyu Umar*, Aminu Ismaila and </strong><strong>Khaidzir Hamza</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>11 April 2023/Accepted 31 September 2023</em></strong></p> <p>Nigerian Research Reactor (NIRR-1) is a tank-in-pool Miniature Neutron Source (MNRS) reactor type that originally uses 90.3% enriched UAl<sub>4</sub>-Al which is a highly enriched uranium fuel as the source of neutron. The recent conversion of this reactor core to low-enriched uranium with 13% enriched UO<sub>2</sub> may significantly affect many neutronics behavior in the core and hence power output. Hence, the need to investigate the likely changes in the neutronic parameters that the fuel replacement may cause. This study investigates the static neutronic behavior in the reactor core lattice arrangement and reactor power distribution using “Serpent” Monte Carlo reactor Physics burnup simulation code module computations which include multi-group diffusion and flux-power reactivity equation for k<sub>eff</sub> eigenvalue and diffusion solution respectively were carried out to determine the effect of lattice geometry and mesh on the power distribution in the core. The result shows that the power distribution is slightly affected by the macroscopic group constant, heat transfer, fluid temperature, coolant density and fission reaction stability. The computational results of power distribution in arrayed fuel core and power distribution per neutron energy generated in the reactor indicate a uniform distribution. The result is important in determining the effect of fuel change and core configuration and in the overall operational safety of the reactor.</p> Abubakar Aliyu Umar, Aminu Ismaila, Khaidzir Hamza Copyright (c) Journal and Author Sat, 02 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Machine learning of Rotational spectra analysis in interstellar medium <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 172-203</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Humphrey Sam Samuel, *</strong><strong>Emmanuel Edet Etim<sup>, </sup></strong><strong>John Paul Shinggu and Bulus. Bako</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received:</em> <sup>&nbsp;</sup></strong><strong><em>14 February 2023/Accepted 20 November 2023</em></strong></p> <p>In the investigation of rotating spectra concerning the interstellar medium, machine-learning approaches have been documented as effective instrument. The understanding of molecular rotational transitions in space and can be a significant source of information on the dynamics, physical properties, and chemical make-up of interstellar spaces. Traditional analytical techniques are however confronted with difficulties when dealing with the enormous and complicated information produced by telescopic observations. The handling of these massive datasets and the extraction of useful data from rotating spectra can be accomplished using machine learning methods, which are a promising approach. This article gives a general overview of the developments of machine learning in the analysis of rotational spectra in the interstellar medium. It goes over how to recognize and describe molecular transitions using supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms, deep learning architectures, and spectral line fitting methods. Also, machine learning algorithms can aid detection of spectral lines that are weak or infrequent but may contain important data regarding the chemical complexity of interstellar areas.</p> <p><img src="" alt=""></p> <p>They help make new molecular discoveries and enable the research of previously undiscovered spectral regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. Despite these developments, there are still problems to be solved, such as handling data noise, uncertainty, and over fitting. By enabling effective and automatic extraction of chemical information from complicated datasets, machine learning in rotational spectra analysis revolutionizes the study of interstellar chemistry. It enables scientists to learn about the chemical diversity and development of interstellar regions, making crucial contributions to our comprehension of the genesis and development of the universe.</p> Humphrey Sam Samuel, Emmanuel Edet Etim*, John Paul Shinggu, Bulus. Bako Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Sat, 25 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Electron Transfer Reactions of Tetrakis (2, 2- Bipyridine)-µ Oxodiiron(III) Complex and Dithionate Ion in Aqueous Acidic Media: Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 57-66</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Atim Sunday Johnson, Idongesit Bassey Anweting* and Idongesit Edem Okon </strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 18 July 2023/Accepted 20 September 2023</strong></p> <p>Electron transfer reaction of tetrakis(2,2’- bipyridine)-µ-oxodiiron(III) complex (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sup>4+</sup>) and&nbsp; dithionate&nbsp; (S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>6</sub><sup>2- </sup>)&nbsp; has been carried out in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The reaction was carried out at [H<sup>+</sup>] = 1.0&nbsp; × 10<sup>-3</sup> &nbsp;mol dm<sup>-3</sup>, I = .3.0 × 10<sup>-1</sup> &nbsp;&nbsp;mol dm<sup>-3</sup>(NaCl), T= 26 ± 1°C, and&nbsp; <strong>λ<sub>max </sub></strong>= 520nm. The stoichiometric ratio of the reaction is 1:1.The reaction is first order with respect to [Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sup>4+</sup>] and zero-order on [S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>6</sub><sup>2-</sup>] and is not hydrogen ion and ionic strength dependent. Added anions and cations do not affect the reaction, there was no gel formation upon the addition of acrylamide and excess methanol to the reaction mixture, which shows the absence of polymerisation, The products of the reaction were identified as Fe<sup>2+</sup> and SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>.&nbsp; With recourse to empirical data, the reaction is rationalised to occur via an outer sphere pathway with ion pair character. A Plausible mechanism has been proposed for the reaction.</p> Atim Sunday Johnson, Idongesit Bassey Anweting, Idongesit Edem Okon Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Thu, 05 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Modifications, Surface Morphology, and Mineral Composition of Clay Obtained from Southern Nigeria <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 40-56</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ukeme O. Isaac</strong>, <strong>Ibanga O. Isaac<sup>*</sup>,</strong> <strong>Itoro E. Willie</strong>, <strong>Etiyene I. Essiet</strong>, <strong>Rasheed Babalola, and Udo J. Ibok</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 18 March 2023/Accepted 25 September 2023</strong></p> <p>The concept of green chemistry has in recent times played a vital role in the processing of feedstocks from locally sourced materials for the production of vast industrial products. This has, to a greater extent, resulted in the sustainability of a greener environment and economy. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral composition, characterization, and modifications of clay obtained from southern Nigeria. The clay sample collected at Ikot Ekang, Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, was leached with a mixture of concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid and trioxonitrate (V) acid (4:1 v/v) to obtain acid-leached clay (AC). The acid-treated clay was calcined at a high temperature of 1050 °C for 2 hours to obtain modified calcined clay (CC). The untreated clay was labeled OC. The surface characteristics, functional groups, minerals, oxides, and elemental compositions of OC, AC, and CC were evaluated using standard methods. The OC and AC show three absorption bands at 3623–3693.8 cm<sup>-1</sup> regions. These peaks were absent in the CC sample. There was no significant difference at p ˂ 0.05 in the mineral composition among the OC, AC, and CC samples, and the p-value was 0.999958. The Pearson correlation coefficient shows that the minerals of sample CC were strongly positively correlated with those of OC (R = 0.774; R<sup>2</sup> = 0.5991) and AC (R = 0.9436; R<sup>2</sup> = 0.8904). The percentage of quartz, syn, muscovite, and orthoclase minerals in OC, AC, and CC varied between 31–56%, 8.1–23%, and 1.87–9.8%, respectively. The surface morphology of the OC sample was plate-like, while surface porosity increased from AC to CC. The clay sample from southern Nigeria is mainly kaolinite clay, and the modification of clay through leaching with acid and calcination improves the mineral composition and quality of the clay minerals.</p> Ukeme O. Isaac, bIbanga O. Isaac, Itoro E. Willie, Etiyene I. Essiet, Rasheed Babalola, Udo J. Ibok Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Comprehensive Assessment and Remediation Strategies for Air Pollution: Current Trends and Future Prospects; A Case Study in Bompai Industrial Area, Kano State, Nigeria. <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 1-13</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Bertha Onyenachi Akagbue*, Mark Ndako Ibrahim, </strong><strong>Oseigbovo Favour Ofure<em>, </em>Oluwaiye Unity Ekugbe, Chibuzor Titus Amaobichukwu, Onah Kyrian, </strong><strong>Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, </strong><strong>Pam </strong><strong>Dajack Dung</strong><strong>, </strong><strong>Sadiq Mohammed Salisu, Suleiman Isa Babale, </strong><strong>Kabiru Garba Ilelah</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 29 March 2023/Accepted 01 September 2023</strong></p> <p>Air pollution poses a significant and multifaceted challenge, impacting both human health and ecological systems on a global scale. The combustion of fossil fuels, industrial processes, vehicular emissions, and natural sources release a myriad of pollutants into the atmosphere, leading to adverse effects such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and ecosystem degradation. As urbanization and industrialization continue to escalate, understanding the dynamics of air pollution, along with developing effective assessment and remediation strategies, becomes paramount. This study delves into the realm of comprehensive assessment and innovative remediation approaches for air pollution, focusing on a vivid case study set in the Bompai industrial area of Kano State, Nigeria. Through the integration of advanced monitoring techniques, data analytics, and policy analysis, this research endeavors to unravel the intricacies of air quality deterioration in a region marked by diverse industrial activities and anthropogenic influences. By exploring the trends of key air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>), nitrogen dioxide(NO<sub>2</sub>), carbon monoxide(CO), and ozone (O), this study seeks to elucidate the immediate and long-term implications for public health and the environment. The Bompai industrial area, with its array of industrial sectors, serves as an illuminating microcosm that exemplifies the intricate interplay between industrial progress and environmental degradation. Through a meticulous examination of real-time air quality data collected over an extended period, this study aims to discern pollution sources, diurnal variations, and meteorological factors shaping pollution dispersion. Such insights contribute to the formulation of targeted and efficient remediation strategies, aligning with global aspirations for cleaner air and healthier societies. The findings from this study are anticipated to not only enhance our comprehension of air pollution dynamics in industrial contexts but also illuminate the pathway toward sustainable urban and industrial development. By emphasizing the significance of multi-dimensional approaches encompassing regulatory frameworks, technological innovations, public awareness campaigns, and international collaborations, this research underscores the urgency of addressing air pollution as a collective responsibility for present and future generations,</p> Bertha Onyenachi Akagbue, Mark Ndako Ibrahim, Oseigbovo Favour Ofure, Oluwaiye Unity Ekugbe, Chibuzor Titus Amaobichukwu, Onah Kyrian, Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Pam Dajack Dung, Sadiq Mohammed Salisu, Suleiman Isa Babale Copyright (c) 2023 Journal and Author Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0400