Communication in Physical Sciences <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> en-US (Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy) (Prof. U.C. Okoro) Sun, 25 Sep 2022 13:24:09 -0400 OJS 60 Ethanol Extract of Curcuma longa as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in solution of HCl <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):429-441</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Ifeoma Okonkwo, *Gloria Chika Udeokpote and Uduak Bassey Essien<br>Received: 14 June 2022/Accepted 30 August 2022</p> <p>Investigation of the potential of ethanol extract of Mango leaf as a green corrosion inhibitor for the corrosion of carbon steel was implemented using gravimetric, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy analytical techniques. Results obtained from the gravimetric analysis indicated that the inhibition efficiency of the extract were 57.38, 72.13 and 78.69% at the inhibitor’s concentration of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3g/L of the extract respectively. The corrosion and the corrosion inhibition process were found to followed pseudo first order kinetics and at various concentrations, the inhibitor demonstrated the potential to extend the halflife of the metal in the acid solution. The adsorption of the inhibitor suited the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption models.<br>The inference drawn from the isotherms revealed that there exists an interaction between the inhibitor’s molecules and that the<br>lateral interaction parameter revealed the attractive behaviour of the inhibitor. The adsorption was spontaneous and agreed with<br>the mechanism of physical adsorption. The scanning electron micrograph of the metal surface after inhibition revealed the formation of a protective layer on the metal surface. Some functional groups that were native to the leaf extract were found to be missing in the FTIR spectrum of corrosion product which suggested that they were used for adsorption while some were shifted, an indication that there was an interaction between the adsorbed species.</p> Vivian Ifeoma Okonkwo, Gloria Chika Udeokpote, Uduak Bassey Essien Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Sat, 24 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Species- Specific- Pathogens of Selected Forest Trees in Tropical Secondary Moist Forest of Otuoke, Nigeria <p>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4): 573-580</p> <p>Eneni Roberts Inala, Okpo Esio Unanaonwi<br>Received: 12 September 2022/Accepted 22 September 2022</p> <p>This study was carried out to identify specific fungi and bacteria species associated with four economic forest trees:-<br>Irvingia gabonensis, Nauclea diderrichii, Fagara macrophylla and Artocarpus altilis in Otuoke secondary forest. Leaf samples of<br>selected trees with symptoms of diseases were randomly collected from three forest locations along the Otuoke axis making careful observations on the disease symptoms they showed. Collected samples were taken to the laboratory for mycological and<br>bacteriological analyses. Results show that 4 fungi species were associated with Irvingia gabonensis, 3 with Nauclea diderrichii, 3 with Fagara macrophylla, and 4 fungi were associated with Artocarpus altilis. Percentage occurrence of bacteria species in plant<br>samples was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31%), Erwinia persicina(23%), Bacillus cereus (23%), and Agrobacterium spp. (23%). Plants<br>leave appear most susceptible to pathogens' attack than other plants' parts. Identified fungi and bacteria were the cause of observable diseased symptoms in tree species. This is vital information for forest management and tree conservation, especially when considering the plantation establishment of these species.</p> Eneni Roberts Inala, Okpo Esio Unanaonwi* Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Quantum Molecular Parameters for the Prediction of Corrosion Inhibition potentials of some Alkaloids in Cryptocarya nigra Stem <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):530-542</strong></p> <p>Authors: Babatunde T. Ogunyemi1* and Richard A. Ukpe<br>Received: 11 March 2022/Accepted 02 September 2022</p> <p>In recent times, the corrosion industry is intensively concentrated on the deployment of ecofriendly inhibitors to replace existing ones that are relatively toxic. In this study, a quantum chemical investigation into the suitability of some natural products in the bark extract of cryptocarya nigra was studied. Molecular reactivity descriptors of six alkaloids reportedly found in the bark of Cryptocarya nigra were probed to elucidate their electronic structures and match their expected reactivity and predict potential toward corrosion inhibition using the quantum mechanical method. The result obtained from DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations indicated that three of the constituent alkaloids (Nmethylisococlaurine, methyllaurotetanine and 2-hydroxyathersperminine) displayed a strong tendency towards corrosion inhibition with theoretical data matching reported experimental values in literature. However, noratherosperminine was shown to be better at inhibiting iron corrosion than the other five due to their low energy gap, higher EHOMO, lower ELUMO and ΔN values which would allow effective electron transfer and therefore<br>better efficiency as a corrosion inhibitor. The relationship between the studied quantum parameters and reported experimental<br>inhibition efficiency of the studied molecules is useful in predicting Cryptocarya nigra alkaloids inhibitors with suitable substituents capable of donating electrons to the surface of the metal</p> Babatunde T. Ogunyemi*, Richard A. Ukpe Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Remediation of effluents polluted with toxic heavy metals using Cola nitida pod husk. <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):520-529</strong></p> <p><strong>Felicia Uchechukwu Okwunodulu* and Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam<br />Received: 01 August 2022/Accepted 21 August 2022</strong></p> <p>Heavy metal ions such as Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ are highly toxic to the entire ecosystem and are mostly produced by several industrial sectors. This study was designed to remove the listed heavy metal ions from an aqueous solution using Cola nitida waste for the batch adsorption process. The waste materials were employed in both raw and modified forms. The results<br />obtained indicated that the adsorption capacity was influenced by initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose at a particle size of 250 µm, pH of 7.5, temperature of 25 0C and period of contact. The extent of adsorption of Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ by unmodified and modified waste Cola nitida waste was observed to increase with an increase in concentration and with a decreasing dosage of the adsorbent. At an initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/l and adsorbent dose of 2g and 3g, maximum adsorptions by the unmodified and modified Cola nitida wastes were recorded for Cd2+ and the values obtained were<br />99.800+0.418 and 99.999+0.499; 89.999+3.439 at 3g and 99.952+0.166 at 2g. The adsorption behaviour of both the unmodified and modified Cola nitida wastes fitted the tested Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models best and suggested the dominancy of the mechanism of physisorption</p> Felicia Uchechukwu Okwunodulu, Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 The Design and Development of Environmentally Friendly Biogas Using an Anaerobic Digestion System <p>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):465-470</p> <p>Authors: Kabiru Alhaji Bala, Ogunlana Yusuf Olayinka and Maryam Aliyu<br>Received: 01 May 2022/Accepted 28 September 2022</p> <p>Abstract: Environmentally friendly biogas can be synthesized using an anaerobic digestion system that is based on the purification of the biogas with some reagents (iron flakes, silica gel, and yeast catalyst). The project design considers four phases namely, the digestion(fermentation) phase, the purification phase, the conservation and the test phase. In the fermentation phase, the decomposition and reaction of micro-organisms take place whereas in the purification stage. consists of three sub-steps, involving a container rich with silica gel, iron chips, and water for the removal of moisture, CO2 and H2S respectively, The conservation stage (the third phase) has an air chamber (tyre tube) for gas storage while the last [hase is the test phase which consists of a<br>Bunsen burner to test the gas stored in the tube.</p> Kabiru Alhaji Bala*, Ogunlana Yusuf Olayinka, Maryam Aliyu Copyright (c) 2020 The Journal and the author Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Application of Green Computing at Nigerian Tertiary Institutions <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):471-477</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Nnaemeka Emeka Ogbene, Hyacinth Chibueze Inyiama, Frank Ekene Ozioko, Nnamdi Johnson Ezeora, Agbo Chibuike George and Asogwa Tochukwu Chijindu<br>Received: 12 August 2022/Accepted 29 September 2022</p> <p>Green computing (also called green technology) is the use of computers and other computing devices/equipment in energy-<br>efficient and eco-friendly ways to conserve energy and reduce climatic change to its barest minimum. The frequent use of various<br>computing devices such as desktop computers, mainframe computers, data centres, and other electronic gadgets at tertiary institutions by a very large number of both staff and students result in energy being dissipated at regular intervals which may lead to climatic change and global warming that are hazardous to human health. Warmer temperatures over time<br>can change weather patterns and disrupt the usual balance of nature thereby posing many health risks to human beings and all other forms of life on earth. In this work, object-oriented analysis and design technology (OOADM) and unified modelling language (UML) tools were employed to develop a template for the application of green computing at Nigerian tertiary institutions. The two UML tools used: use-case and activity diagrams, show the various actors involved in the usage of green computing at tertiary institutions and the sequential steps required by each of the actors in using the green computing in his/her domain, respectively. The template well adopted by all the tertiary institutions and other establishments in Nigeria<br>will help to conserve energy and reduce climatic change drastically, thereby creating a healthy environment.<br>Keywords: Green computing, climatic change,<br>computing devices, Nigerian tertiary</p> <p>institutions, object-oriented analysis and<br>design technology</p> Nnaemeka Emeka Ogbene, Hyacinth Chibueze Inyiama, Frank Ekene Ozioko, Nnamdi Johnson Ezeora, Agbo Chibuike George, Asogwa Tochukwu Chijindu Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Tue, 11 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Radiation Doses in Fishing Water and Coast Soil in Lagos State South West Nigeria <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):456 - 464</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Kayode Idowu Ogungbemi*, Williams Igoniye ; Ibitoye Ayo Zaccheaus; Margret Abosede. Adedokun, Olusola Olurotimi Oyebola<br><strong>Received: 11 July 2022/Accepted 30 September 2022</strong></p> <p>This study investigated the radionuclide concentrations in soils and waters of the Coastline and some selected aquatic commonly consumed in this area. Radioactivity levels were evaluated in their natural occurrences in the samples of water, soil and selected aquatic life from three different locations in the Mainland part of Lagos State (Makoko, University of Lagos waterfront and Bariga). Canberra High Purity Germanium Gamma spectrometer was used for the detection of radionuclides and determines the activity. The activity concentrations of Pb-214, Pb-212, Cs-134, and K-40 in the Soil samples of Makoko were found to be 7.89±0.51, 10.20±1.21, 0.69±0.10 and 67.37±2.52 Bq/kg, respectively. From the University of Lagos waterfront, the concentrations of the Soil samples were found to be 8.22±0.51 Bq/kg for Pb-214, 10.54±1.19 Bq/kg for Pb-212, 0.57±0.15 for Cs-134. For the selected Aquatic life (Tilapia Fish, Cat Fish and Crab) from these three locations of interest. The concentrations of K-40 ; Pb-<br>214;Pb-212 Cd-113; Ni-59 in Tilapia fish from Makoko water body was 24.63 Bq\Kg; 0.568 Bq\Kg; 0.07 Bq\Kg; 0.16 Bq\Kg and ;1.65<br>Bq\Kg , respectively. However recorded concentrations at the Makoko Catfish forK-40; Pb-214; Pb-212; Cd-113 and Ni-59 were11.75 Bq\Kg; 0.20 Bq\Kg; 0.04Bq\Kg;0.13Bq\Kg and 1.05Bq\Kg, respectively. The activity concentration showed insignificant<br>values in the three locations based on Nigerian Basic Ionizing Radiation Regulation 2003, UNSCEAR 2008, ICRP 1983, and IAEA 2011 standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> *Kayode Idowu Ogungbemi, Williams Igoniye, Zaccheaus Ayo Ibitoye., Margret Abosede Adedokun, Olusola Olurotimi Oyebola Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Analysis of Heavy Metals in Some Food Crops and Soils Impacted with Crude Oil in Southern Nigeria <p>The contamination of food crops grown in crude oil-impacted soils by heavy metals is becoming alarming due to incessant<br>oil spills. Some physicochemical and heavy metals (Fe, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) analyses of crude oil-impacted soils from<br>southern Nigeria and some food crops are grown on them were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The soil<br>samples were collected from different communities (Atia, Ntafre, Ntak Ifaha, Esitikeme, Awah) and a control sample was<br>also collected from a nearby non-oil impacted farmland in Mkpanak community, all in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa<br>Ibom State, Nigeria. Some food crop samples (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Dioscorea alata, Zea mays L., Musa paradisiaca and<br>Colocasia esculenta) were randomly collected simultaneously along with the soil samples from all sites. The results revealed<br>that the soils’ pH varied from 5.35±2.10 to 6.18±0.00 which indicated that the soils under study were acidic while that of the<br>control was 7.94±1.52. The organic matter (OM) content in all the impacted soil samples was higher (12.95±0.35 % to 17.05±4.28 %) compared to the control soil (6.74±1.30 %) sample. The concentrations of the heavy metalsin the soils in terms of abundance were in the order: Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Ni &gt; Cu &gt; Cr &gt; Pb &gt; Cd which showed that Fe is the most sufficient. It was observed that most of the<br>studied crops especially Manihot esculenta C. had values of heavy metals higher than the values recorded for their respective soil<br>samples. Also, the levels of all the studied metals exceeded the permissible limits set by WHO/FAO except for Zn and Cu. However,<br>the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) showed that the highest TF recorded was in Zn, with most values above 1 followed by Cr and Cd. This is an indication that Zn, Cr and Cd were the most bio-available metals. This signified that residents could be exposed to substantial health risks associated with heavy metals via the consumption of these food crops</p> Mercy Uwem Useh, Eno Linus Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Phytochemical analysis, invitro antioxidant activity and GC-MS studies of crude extracts of Cissus populnea stem <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):507-519</strong></p> <p><strong>Uduak Aletan, Elijah Adetola, Ahmed Abudullahi, Olayinka Onifade, Hadiza Kwazo Adamu<br>Received: 22 July 2022/Accepted 02 September 2022</strong></p> <p>The medicinal capabilities of plants has been attributed to the presents of phytochemicals and their antioxidant activities. In this study, five solvent extracts (aqueous, ethanol, butanol ethyl acetate, and n-hexane) of Cissus populnea stem were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for some phytoconstituents and in vitro antioxidant activities using three methods of antioxidant<br>assessment. GC-MS analysis was also carried out on the aqueous extract for the identification of the bioactive compounds. The ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of all the phytochemicals tested for in the qualitative phytochemical screening. The butanol extract indicated the highest quantity of alkaloids (91.90 ± 2.13 mg/100g), flavonoids (67.24 ± 1.56 mg/100g), and saponins (60.13 ± 1.41 mg/100g) while the highest level of tannins (65.25±0.14 mg/100g) and phenols (15.35±0.27 mg/100g) were recorded in the aqueous extract. The n-hexane extract recorded the least quantity of all the phytochemicals studied. In all three methods of in vitro antioxidant assessment used, antioxidant activity increased with increased concentration in all the extracts. For the percentage, DPPH and nitric acid inhibition methods all the extracts at 100 μg/ml showed antioxidant capacity up to 50% of that showed by the standard, ascorbic acid at the same concentration. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous extract revealed the presence of 36 compounds belonging to 15 known classes of compounds while 2 of the compounds were unclassified. The major chemical constituents were 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (21.17%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (20.33%), Stigmastam-3, 5, 22-trien (7.78%) and 2',6'- Dihydroxyacetophenone (6.61%) . These data show that C. populnea stem is a potential source of bioactive compounds</p> Uduak Aletan, Elijah Adetola, Ahmed Abudullahi, Olayinka Onifade Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Excess Parameters of Binary Mixtures of Nitrobenzene-Dimethyl Sulphoxide (Nb-Dmso) <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):484-492</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors</strong>: Orjiocha, Samuel Ibezim, Ibezim-Ezeani, Millicent Uzoamaka, Abugu, Hillary Onyeka,<br>Ogbodo, John Onyebuchi, Akor Joseph, Nwanya, Assumpta Chinwe, and Horsfall Micheal<br>Received: 22 March 2022/Accepted 18 October 2022</p> <p>Recently there is an increased quest for alternative forms of electrolytes outside the conventional acid-based electrolytes in battery cell technology because of the health, environmental, and cost, implications of acid. The present study explored the possibility of using organic solvent as an alternative electrolyte in battery cell technology by studying those excess parameters which are related to the liquid mixtures of nitrobenzenedimethyl sulphoxide with a mandate to determine the intensity of the molecular interactions of the binary mixed system. The viscosities, densities, conductivity, and pH of the binary solvent were determined using the percentage composition of 0 to 100 % at the following temperature range, 298.15, 303.15, 318.15, 328.15, and 338.15K respectively. Other parameters such as the molar volume (????m), excess molar volumes (????m ????), excess viscosity (????<br>E), excess Gibbs’ free energy of activation of viscous flow (????∗E) and GrunbergNissan interaction parameters (d), were<br>determined using the experimental values of the density and viscosity. For the molecular interaction of the mixtures studied, the<br>deviations from the parameters in the composition of the binary mixture and temperature were also investigated. There was<br>a decrease in the pH and an increase in the viscosity and density of the results obtained from the experiment as the system temperature and the mole fractions of nitrobenzene increased. The excess parameters were all negative values indicating the dominance of dipole-dipole interactions within nitrobenzenedimethyl sulphoxide solvent mixture. The investigation indicated that the solvent mixture behaviors support the need to use the solvents as an alternative electrolyte in battery cell technology</p> Orjiocha, Samuel Ibezim, Ibezim-Ezeani, Millicent Uzoamaka, Abugu, Hillary Onyeka, Ogbodo, John Onyebuchi, Akor Joseph, Nwanya, Assumpta Chinwe, Horsfall Micheal Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Sat, 22 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Position Analysis of the Relationship Between the Naira Exchange Rate, Gb Pounds, Euro and US-Dollars <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):493-506</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Kingsley Uchendu Chinaegbomkpa Umezurike and David, Friday Adiele<br>Received: 22 July 2022/Accepted 20 October 2022</p> <p>The main objective of this research is to investigate the true position of the causal relationship between the Nigeria Naira exchange rate against the Euro, GBP and Dollars on the long and short run. We considered the structural break which is believed to be as a result of the government deliberate devaluation of the Naira. Unit root test indicated stationarity at the first<br>difference for all the variables. The result of the vector error correction model reveals that the position of the relationship on long run pair wise test between NGNUSD, NGGBP and NGNEUR shows unidirectional causality running from NGNUSD→NGNGBP→ and<br>NGNUSD→NGNEUR. This implies that NGNUSD affects NGNGBP and NGNEUR in the long run. It is observed that NGNUSD is useful to forecast NGNGBP and NGNEUR, but the converse is not true. Moreover, it is observed that there is bi-directional causality between NGNGBP and NGNEUR, which implies that all the series affect each other in the long run. On the other hand, the position of the relationship in the short run using the Wald test reveals a unidirectional causality running from NGNEUR to NGNGBP, which means NGNEUR affects NGNGBP in the short-run. We observed that NGNEUR is useful to forecast NGNGBP in the short-run but the converse is not true. This reveals that the position of the relationship between the Naira, Dollar, Euro and GB-pound is responsible for the constant price hike in Nigeria, making the living condition of Nigeria, making living condition&nbsp;of Nigerians&nbsp; harshly unbearable.</p> Kingsley Uchendu, Chinaegbomkpa Umezurike, David, Friday Adiele Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Determination of trace metal, fat content and iodine value in canned fishes; sardine (Sardinella brasilienses) and mackerel (scomber scombus) <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(4):477-483</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Ibe Awodi* and Nsidibe C Nwokem<br>Received: 12 May 2022/Accepted 08 October 2022</p> <p>Fish is an important source of nutrients to man and is also useful for the production of animal-based foods. However,<br>there have reported cases of contamination of fifish products from natural or anthropogenic sources such as; agricultural activities, industrial wastes and others. The corrosion and leaching of heavy metals from cans use for the packaging of the products may contribute to the contamination of foods. The consumption of these contaminated foods has deleterious<br>effects on human health such as; cancer, respiratory diseases, and kidney failure among others. It is therefore pertinent to address this surging global crisis. This study conceived to examine the concentration of metal ions, , fat and iodine value of fishes consumed in Nigeria. The samples were obtained from a store in Zaria, Kaduna State. A flame-type atomic absorption spectrophotometer, AAS (VARIAN AA240FS Fast sequential model) was used for the analysis of trace metals (Ni, Cr, Cd) content<br>of the sample. The results for the trace metal analysis in mackerel gave the following mean concentrations; 0.39±0.14 mg/kg (Ni2+),0.16±0.02 mg/kg (Cr) and &lt;0.01 mg/kg (Cd). The mean concentration of trace metals in sardine was found to be: 0.09±0.01 mg/kg (Ni), 0.01±0 mg/kg (Cr) and &lt;0.01 mg/kg (Cd). The fat contents in the analyzed fish sample were 25.24±4.16 % and 0.09±0.01 % for mackerel and sardine respectively, while&nbsp; the iodine values of oil in mackerel obtained was 114.84±3.59 I2/100 g and that of Sardine was 76.14±3.03 I2/100 g. The concentration of cadmium in the two fish samples, and the concentration of Cr ions in samples of sardine were both below the recommended limit by WHO. However, the concentration of Cr in Mackerel and the concentration of Ni2+ in the two fish samples were above the permissible limit by WHO.</p> Ibe Awodi*, Nsidibe C Nwokem Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0400