Communication in Physical Sciences <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> en-US (Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy) (Prof. U.C. Okoro) Sun, 08 May 2022 02:23:48 -0400 OJS 60 Effects of Injection and Heat Sink/Source on Convective Kuvshinki Fluid through a Porous Medium <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 148-157</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Akeem B. Disu* and Emmanuel Omokhuale<br><strong>Received </strong>02 February 2022/Accepted 30 April 2022/</p> <p>This study investigated the effects of injection on convective boundary layer Kuvshinshiki fluid through a porous medium in the presence of a heat source/sink. The equations governing the flow were modelled as non-dimensionless partial differential equations (PDEs). The transformed dimensionless ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were solved analytically using the perturbation method. Expressions for Skinfriction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were<br>obtained. The numerical values of the Kuvshinshiki fluid velocity, temperature and concentration at the plate were shown graphically for varied values of the physical parameters. It was observed that the velocity of the fluid increased as Dufour number, Kuvshinski parameter, thermal and mass Grashof numbers were increased and a reverse trend was noticed as heat source/sink increased.</p> Akeem B. Disu*, Emmanuel Omokhuale Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 The Impact of Field Trip on the Retention and Academic Performance in Ecology, Among Secondary School Students in Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 196-204</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Mahmud*, Ismail Muhammad and Sadiya Ibrahim</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 11 January 2022/Accepted 04 May 2022</strong></p> <p>The study investigated “the impact of field trips on retention and academic performance in ecology among secondary school students in Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A Quasi experimental design which utilized a pre-test control group design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of 2834 SSI students from (19) public secondary schools in Zaria Educational Zone of Kaduna State. Four (4) out of nineteen schools were randomly selected from both urban and rural areas where two schools each were used as experimental and control groups respectively. The experimental group was taught, using a field trip teaching strategy while the control group was taught by lecture method. A stratified random sampling technique was employed to select the sample from the four schools and a total of 200 students were selected as a sample size from both urban and rural areas. The instruments used for this study were the Ecology Performance Test (EPT) with a reliability value 0.83 and the Ecology Retention Test (ERT) with reliability value 0.83 aimed at determining the performance and retention of the students. One research question was stated what is the impact of field trip teaching strategy on students academic performance in ecology concept in Zaria Educational Zone? One corresponding hypotheses such as the one that addressed the absence of a significant difference between the mean scores of the students taught in items of an ecology concept (using field trip and those taught using the lecture method) was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. After the data were collected; the research questions were tested using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics i.e. independent sample test (t-test). The findings of the study showed that the field-trip teaching strategy favoured the experimental group in the ecology concept. The study further confirmed that the field trip teaching strategy favoured the urban experimental group, one of the major recommendations made is the government should make the use of the field trip teaching strategy compulsory made is that government should make the use of field trip teaching strategy compulsory particularly in the teaching and learning of ecology concepts at senior secondary school level.</p> A. Mahmud, Ismail Muhammad, Sadiya Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta Activity Concentration in Groundwater from Damaturu <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 179-186</strong></p> <p>The major source of potable water in Damaturu is underground water especially boreholes and artesian wells which may contain radioactive substances. The presence of radioactivity in water may pose severe health risk to consumers. In light of this, the gross alpha and beta activity concentration of 15 borehole water samples from Damaturu were analysed using the gasless channel MPC 2000B-DP proportional counter. The highest concentration of alpha activity was <br>recorded for samples from Gwange with 50.26 2.78mBq L. This was also found to have the highest activity concentration 79.87  5.26 mBq L<br>for beta activity. The lowest alpha activity concentration was obtained in New Abbari with 0.79 1.19 mBq L and the lowest beta activity concentration was obtained in Waziri Ibrahim 10.24  3.05 mBq L . The mean alpha and beta activity concentrations in the study area ar15.76 1.74 mBq L and 35.11  4.09 mBq L, respectively. All the samples analysed are below the 0.5 Bq L and 1.0 Bq L screening level set by the WHO (2011) for alpha and beta activity concentration, respectively. The annual gonadal equivalent dose (AGED) and committed effective dose (CED) were calculated for the samples and it was found that all the samples were within the 1mSv yr limit set by the ICRP for members of the public. Therefore, the level of radioactivity in the water samples may not pose a significant health risk. It is recommended that this study be expanded to analyse all potable water sources in the study area using an improved method of analysis<strong>. </strong></p> Yakubu Mohammed, Habu Tela Abba, Mustapha Suleiman Gimba Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Impacts of Temperature and Precipitation Variability in Northeast Nigeria: a Case Study of Yobe State <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 158-170</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors:</strong> Agada Livinus Emeka* and Sonloye Seyi Abiodun<br>Received: 22 March 2022/Accepted 30 April 2022</p> <p>Understanding the impacts of temperature and precipitation variability is important to successful climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Given the increasing effects of global warming which have manifested in extreme weather events such as heatwaves, droughts and floods in the study area. The study of its impacts became necessary as it threatens agricultural production, human health and other socioeconomic activities. This study investigated the<br>variability in temperature and precipitation in northeast Nigeria, using Yobe State as a case study. Temperature and Precipitation data for forty years (1981-2020) were obtained from two Nigerian Meteorological stations (Potiskum and Nguru) and the data were used for the study. The data were analyzed using<br>basic statistical tools, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standard Anomaly Index (SAI). The results obtained showed that the study area is fast warming. The analyzed maximum and minimum temperatures indicated that there was a steady increase in temperature in the study area. The magnitude<br>and precipitation pattern in the study area have changed over the studied period and their variability will continue with the increasing global warming. Precipitation in Nguru is declining and the temperature is fast rising. Agricultural activities such as crop production, fishing and animal rearing were grossly<br>affected due to the abysmal shrinking of the Nguru and Gashua rivers. Irrigation farming and water availability were also affected due to the lowering of the groundwater table. Extreme weather conditions such as droughts, floods and heatwaves were observed to be increasing in the study area and their effects were exacerbated by desertification and deforestation processes. Massive tree planting should be encouraged by both the public and the government to reduce desertification and increase evapotranspiration in the study area. By extension, the obtained results are a reflection of the impact of climate variability in northeastern Nigeria.</p> Agada Livinus Emeka*, Sonloye Seyi Abiodun Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Chelating and Antibacterial Potentials of Benzylpenicillin and its Ni(II) Complex <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 138-1</strong><strong>47</strong></p> <p><strong>Ifeanyi E. Otuokere, U.F Robert &amp; K.K Igwe</strong></p> <p><strong>Received 04 January 2022/Accepted 27 April 2022</strong></p> <p>The ligand, benzylpenicillin&nbsp; (BPEN) is an antibacterial therapy used in the treatment of bacteria. Infections. Ni(II) complex of&nbsp; (BPEN) was synthesized. The physical properties such as melting point, solubility and colour of BPEN and [Ni(BPEN)] were determined. BPEN and its Ni complex were characterized using spectroscopic methods. [Ni(BPEN)] has a light green shade. The molar conductivity of (BPEN) and [Ni(BPEN)] were 218.2 and 126.0 Sm<sup>2</sup>mol-<sup>1</sup>. The conductivity parameters suggested that BPEN and its Ni complex are ionic. Spectroscopic results suggested that BPEN coordinated to Ni ion through hydroxyl, carbonyl of amide, carbonyl of carboxylic acid, carbonyl of β-lactam and amine functional groups. BPEN coordinated through five sites to the Ni ion. A pentadentate geometry was proposed for the complex. The antibacterial activity of BPEN and [Ni(BPEN)] were studied against four-gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pneumonia aeruginosa and Campylobacter fetus) and four-gram positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus substilis, Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis). The results suggested that [Ni(BPEN)] exhibited better antibacterial activity than (BPEN]. It was concluded that metal complexation enhanced the antibacterial activity of the ligand by increasing the inhibitory potential against the bacterial strains used.</p> Ifeanyi E. Otuokere, K. K. Igwe Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 222Rn activity concentration in outdoor air of Johor, Malaysia <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2): 205-210</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Rakiya Haruna </strong><strong>and</strong><strong><sup>,</sup></strong><strong> Muneer Aziz Saleh</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 23 February 2022/Accepted 04 May 2022</strong></p> <p>Radon is a radioactive element that has a great potential to cause cancer, in addition to other impacts on the environment. &nbsp;In this study, an investigation was conducted to establish reference data for an outdoor concentration of <sup>222</sup>Rn in air around&nbsp; Johor state in&nbsp; Malaysia. The <sup>222</sup>R activity in outdoor air was measured using RAD7 solid-state alpha detector. The measured values vary from MDA to 3.85 Bq/L with a mean value of 0.15 ±0.04 Bq/L, which is approximately ten times the maximum permissible range specified by WHO (2016) of 0.005-0.015 Bq/L. A map of the spatial distribution of <sup>222</sup>Rn in outdoor air was produced which indicates that higher values of <sup>222</sup>Rn in outdoor air were measured in the north western part of this study area.</p> Rakiya Haruna, Muneer Aziz Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Quasi-particle band structure and optical properties of Perylene Crystal for Solar Cell Application: A G0W0 Calculations <p>The increased demand for clean energy due to future fear of scarcity and alarming pollution threats from fossil fuels, has propelled stringent drive on the search for alternative energy source including photovoltaic technology. This technology relies on renewable source and is green, ecofriendly and easily avoidable. In view of the role of photovoltaic technology on organic compound for electronic transition, this study is designed to implement theoretical<br>calculations of structural, electronic and optical properties of the perylene crystal using highly accurate first-principles approach for a many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The calculated lattice parameters of perylene with GGA-PBE are reasonably in good agreement with experimental measurement.<br>Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) based on the G0W0 approximation was used for the calculation of band structure. The bandgap value of 2.4 eV, obtained was consistent with the expected range from experiment (i.e, 2.33-2.46 eV). The optical properties including absorption coefficient, reflectivity, refractive index and energy loss function are derived from the calculated complex dielectric function to understand the optical behavior of perylene. Optical<br>properties calculations show that the results obtained within G0W0 approximation are also close to experimental results. With the evaluated optical gap of 2.4 eV and the expected strong absorption of perylene crystal in the visible light, the investigated material is most likely suitable for solar cell application</p> Abdullahi Lawal, Musa Bello, Ahmed Musa Kona Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Tue, 05 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Study on the Mechanical Properties of Low- Density Polyethylene Cow Horn Powder Composite <p>Composite formulation has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of polymer materials. This study describes the mechanical properties of cow<br>horn powder reinforced with waste low density polyethylene. The study was performed by recycling waste low density polyethylene and compounding it with the ground cow horn (the white Bororo cow horn). Mechanical and Fourier Transformed infra-red (FTIR) analysis was investigated for various compositions by<br>weight of the formulated samples. The results obtained indicated that the properties of the composites varied with identified properties of the filler reinforcements. The results also showed that the control sample, (which consisted of 150 Mics WLDPE/CH 100/0) had the least tensile test and yield strength of 14.40 Mpa and 3.60 Mpa respectively, while the 150 Mics WLDPE/CH 90/10 had the optimum elastic modulus of 17.54 Mpa and the lowest elongation at break of 359.71%. The infrared spectra of the filler samples revealed absorption peaks within the ranges 4000-650cm-1. The characteristic absorption peaks for<br>the stretch and bend vibrations for the treated and untreated cow horn fillers were 3678 cm-1 and 3652 cm1 . Our results gave evidence that composite combinations of low-density polyethylene have enhanced mechanical and morphological properties</p> Uche Ibeneme , Paul A. P. Mamza, Casmir E. Gimba , S. A. Yaro Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 -0400