Communication in Physical Sciences <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> en-US (Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy) (Prof. U.C. Okoro) Thu, 09 Jun 2022 03:04:28 -0400 OJS 60 Mitigation of the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Solutions Using An Aqueous Extract of Calopogonium muconoide (cm) as a green corrosion inhibitor <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3):364-377</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Okoche Kelvin Amadi, </strong><strong>Stella Mbanyeaku Ufearoh, Innocent Ajah Okoro</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;And Paulina Adaeze Ibezim</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 22 January 2022/Accepted 06 July 2022</strong></p> <p>The applications of inorganic and some organic corrosion have received several setbacks because of their toxicity. Consequently, current research interests are directed toward the design, synthesis and application of green corrosion inhibitors. This paper reports the use of the ethanol extract of Calopogonium muconoide against the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid using weight loss measurements at 303 K and 333 K. Results obtained from weight loss measurements indicated that the plant extract retarded the corrosion of mild steel coupons in the acid media at 91.39 % and 56.79 % inhibition efficiency thereby functioning as a good corrosion inhibitor against the dissolution of steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. The inhibition efficiency of plant extract on mild steel in 0.5 M HCl was investigated. The inhibition performance was tested by weight loss technique. The results obtained from the weight loss method showed that inhibition efficiencies increase with an increase in the concentration of the plant extract molecules and with the highest inhibition efficiency observed at the optimum concentration of 1.2 g/L. At 303 K and 333 K, the inhibitor showed inhibition efficiency of 91.39 % and 56.79 % respectively. Inhibition efficiencies were also found to decrease with an increase in temperature. Apparent activation energy values in the inhibited systems (35.62 kJ/mol, 39.23 kJ/mol/44.47 kJ/mol, 49.49 kJ/mol, 56.64 and 58.10) were found to be greater than that of the free acid solution (12.98 kJ/mol) showing the adsorption of the plant extract on the steel surface to be by physical mechanism. &nbsp;The following adsorption isotherms were implored in the study; Freundlich, El-Awardy et al and Langmuir isotherms with Langmuir showing the best description of the experimental data with correlation coefficient value (R<sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.99). In the study, values of enthalpy, Δ???? were all negative showing the exothermic nature of the corrosion and inhibition processes while free energy values for the inhibition processes at 303 and 333 K were -16.84 kJ/mol and -15.56 kJ/mol respectively revealing the inhibition of mild steel in the acid media by the plant extracts to be spontaneous except at 1.0 g/L and 1.2 g/L concentrations at both temperatures</p> Okoche Kelvin Amadi, Stella Mbanyeaku Ufearoh, Innocent Ajah Okoro, Paulina Adaeze Ibezim Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Sun, 10 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Characterization of Subsurface Densities Using Aerogravity Data of Okigwe and Environs <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3):355-363</strong></p> <p><strong>Isaac Owoicho Agada, Magnus Uzoma Igboekwe and Faustinus Chukwunweike Anyadiegwu</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 25 January 2022/Accepted 01 July 2022</strong></p> <p>Density and its variations across rock materials govern gravity anomalies. As an important physical property of geologic materials, knowledge of rock densities provides vital information on subsurface structure and explorations. The study was carried out to model gravity anomalies and analyse the varying densities of subsurface materials within Okigwe and Environslocated between Latitudes 5˚30’N and 6˚00’N, and Longitudes 7˚00’E and 7˚30’E in South Eastern Nigeria. Using Oasis Montaj geophysical data processing tool, aerogravity dataset for Okigwe and environs as contained in the Okigwe aerogravity sheet 312 obtained from Nigeria Geologic Survey Agency (NGSA) was analysed, mapped, profiled and modelled inversely to reveal the subsurface with varying and unique densities. There are huge masses of igneous/ gneiss intrusions with densities of 2.80g/cm<sup>3</sup> in a diagonal array from the NE to SW of the study area, with locations such as Ihube, okigwe town and Umuna featuring strategically. The entire Okigwe and environs is underlain by a thick Precambrian basement complex, having varying densities of 2.67g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 2.76g/cm<sup>3</sup>. The huge basement complex of the study area is overlaid with sediments of various densities, ranging from sandstones (2.25g/cm<sup>3</sup>), and clay/shale/laterite (1.98g/cm<sup>3</sup>). At the NW extreme and SE wing around Obowo, Umuahia and environs, the subsurfaceis dominated by low density materials as projected by the negative gravity signatures observed in the Bouguer anomaly map. Materials with the highest densities were observed at the NE axis around ihube, Okigwe, the southern part of Isuochiand their environs.</p> Isaac Owoicho Agada, Magnus Uzoma Igboekwe, Faustinus Chukwunweike Anyadiegwu Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity Screening of Extracts from the Leaf of Emilia coccinea (SIMS) G.don <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3): 325-330</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Okenwa Uchenna Igwe and Ugochukwu Clinton Akwada</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Received: 17 March 2022/Accepted 06 June 2022</strong></p> <p>Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don, is widely used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of tumors, inflammation, cough, rheumatism, fever, dysentery, wounds and in the prevention of some health challenges. However, little is known of their actual phytochemical content concerning their various medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, preliminary and quantitative phytochemical properties of E. coccinea leaves were evaluated using recommended analytical procedures. The results obtained indicated the presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids (0.57 ± 0.01), alkaloids (3.87 ± 0.02), tannins (0.15 ± 0.01), saponins (0.39 ± 0.02) and phenols (0.43 ± 0.01). The high concentration of alkaloids and moderate concentration of other phytochemicals proved that E. coccinea extract has some potential for pharmaceutical applications. E. coccinea leaves extract also exhibited significant antioxidant activity at a minimum and maximum concentrations of 2.0 and 12.0 mg/ml respectively (compared to the ascorbic acid used as a standard free scavenger). The component identified in the plant has established literature on its medicinal and physiological associated benefits.</p> Okenwa Uchenna Igwe, Ugochukwu Clinton Akwada Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 The Inverse Lomax Chen Distribution: Properties and Applications <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3):339-354</strong></p> <p><strong>Sadiq Muhammed<sup>*</sup>, Tukur Dahiru and Abubakar Yahaya </strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 09 February&nbsp; 2022/Accepted 06 June 2022</strong></p> <p>Many researchers in the field of distribution theory have been expanding or generalizing existing probability distributions to improve their modeling flexibility. In this paper, we introduced a new continuous probability distribution called the inverse Lomax Chen distribution with four parameters. We studied the nature of the proposed distribution with the help of its mathematical and statistical properties such as quantile function, ordinary moments, generating function and reliability. The distribution of order statistics for this distribution was also obtained. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to see the performance of MLEs of the inverse Lomax Chen distribution. We performed a classical estimation of parameters by using the technique of maximum likelihood estimate. The proposed model was applied to three real datasets and the results show that the proposed distribution provides a better fit than its comparators</p> Sadiq Muhammed, Tukur Dahiru, Abubakar Yahaya Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Analysis and Estimated Daily Dose Intake of Toxic Metals in Commonly Used Building Materials and Its Health Impacts on the Society in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3):331-338</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Kayode I. Ogungbemi, Margret. B. Adedokun, Zaccheaus A. Ibitoye, Olusola. O. Oyebola, Joshua O. Ojo and </strong><strong>Latifat R. Owoade </strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 01 February 2022/Accepted 12 June 2022</strong></p> <p>Toxic metals are persistent in our environment, and building materials are not left over from the contaminations of these metals. These toxic metals posed a great &nbsp;threat to human health. Some of these heavy metals such as lead have been identified as a potential human carcinogen, causing lung cancer. This study is on commonly used building materials and identifications of selected toxic metals present therein and their health implications to our society. The most commonly used building materials are &nbsp;&nbsp;asbestos, red bricks, pasters of paris (POP) and paints from major manufacturers. The samples of these building materials were collected from point of sales and toxic metals such as: Pb, Zn, Cu and Co were identified and quantified. Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model S4 series, Model (GBC 906) (USA) for the analysis of the samples. The Estimated Daily Dose Intake (EDDI) of the detected toxic metals was computed. EDDI from POP due to Pb, Cu and Zn are 1.390x10<sup>-5</sup>, 1.812 x10<sup>-6</sup> and 1.482 x10<sup>-5</sup> mg/Kg/day respectively. For the paints, EDDI from paints are for Pb, Cu and Co are 9.900 x10<sup>-5</sup>, -1.156 x10<sup>-5</sup> and 3.990 x10<sup>-5</sup> mg/kg/day respectively. However; in red bricks the EDDI obtained are Pb, Cu and Zn are 1.844 x10<sup>-5</sup>, 8.711 x10<sup>-6</sup>, and 3.159 x10<sup>-5</sup> mg/kg/day respectively. &nbsp;The EDDI from the Asbestos due to Cu was 1.578 x10<sup>-6</sup> and 4.061 x10<sup>-5</sup> mg/kg/day. EDDI in POP are as follows Pb, Cu and Zn, 1.396 x10<sup>-5</sup>, 2.990 x10<sup>-5</sup> and 9.519 x10<sup>-6</sup> mg/kg/day respectively. The ICRP has a set minimum permissible daily dose for each of the heavy metals however, the results so obtained in this study show that the Pb EDDI in Paints is 1.567 x10<sup>-4</sup> mg/kg/day.</p> Kayode I. Ogungbemi, Margret. B. Adedokun , Zaccheaus A. Ibitoye , Olusola. O. Oyebola , Joshua O. Ojo, Latifat R. Owoade Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Tue, 14 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Health Effects of Tropospheric Ozone in Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(2):311-324</strong></p> <p><strong>Agada Livinus Emeka</strong></p> <p><strong>Received: 02 March 2022/Accepted 03 June 2022</strong></p> <p>The troposphere is the nearest layer of the atmosphere and its composition can significantly be influenced by natural and anthropogenic activities that release gaseous substances to the atmosphere. The layer extends up to 15 km above the ground surface.&nbsp; Given the possible public health challenges that tropospheric ozone can impact on the ecosystem, this study is focused on the health impact of tropospheric Ozone in Maiduguri metropolis, Nigeria. The meteorological data used for this study were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website and the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet), Abuja. The analysis of the fifteen (15) years (2005-2020) data obtained showed that the study area is polluted by tropospheric Ozone. The results of the time series analysis of the data showed an increasing trend in all the months except April. The concentration of tropospheric ozone in the study area ranges from 17 – 40 DU (26.1 to 61.5 ppb) during the period of study. According to the WHO guideline, the level of tropospheric Ozone should be less than 50 ppb (100 µg/m<sup>3</sup>) daily 8-hours average exposure with a potential level of 30 ppb (WHO, 2006). With regards to the WHO standard guideline on tropospheric Ozone concentration in the atmosphere, it is obvious that the study area is polluted.&nbsp; The analysis of the maximum temperature data of the study area showed a continuous increase in maximum temperature which is an indication that the increase in tropospheric Ozone concentration in the area is associated with global warming. The study was focused on enlightenment, sensitization and creation of awareness on public health and the environmental risk of tropospheric ozone.</p> Agada Livinus Emeka Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0400