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Communication in Physical Sciences 2018, 3(1):67-75
Authors: Obialo Solomon Onwuka,Elochukwu Pearl Echezona and Chimankpam Kenneth Ezugwu
Received 20 November2018/Accepted 26 December 2018
Uburu is a rural settlement bounded within latitudes 6˚ 00’N and 6˚ 05’N, and longitudes 7˚ 40’E and 7˚ 45’E. Water quality in Uburu area of southeastern Nigeria was investigated, applying multivariate Statgraphics Centurion XVII, ArcGIS 10.2.2 and Surfer 10 software on hydrochemical and bacteriological data. 10 water samples, ranging from boreholes, hand dug wells and surface waters were collected, to unravel the major factor controlling water quality in the study area. The study area is underlain by Abakaliki Shale, which comprises bluish grey shales with fine to medium to coarse grained sandstones. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses were used to assess the influence of geogenic and anthropogenic processes on the groundwater quality. Results suggest that the groundwater is acidic, hard and salty, due to salt water intrusion in the Uburu area. The water types are mainly Na++K+ and S042- Cl–. According to the W.H.O (2017) standards, the levels of the physico-chemical parameters in the groundwater indicate that the water is acceptable for domestic use; but the bacteriological analysis shows high counts of Escherichia coliform (E.coli) bacteria, which indicates poor sanitary conditions in the study area. It will be safe, therefore, to suggest that the water be treated before it is used for drinking and preparation of food, in order to avoid incidences of gastrointestinal diseases caused by the ingestion of water contaminated by faecal matters. The groundwater and surface water cluster analysis unraveled that rock mineral dissolution, sewage and agricultural waste contaminations, are the main factors controlling the water chemistry in the area
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