Phytochemical Screening and Anti-microbial Properties of Herbal Medicines used for Treatment of Typhoid and Bacterial/Viral Infection in Kaduna State


  • Ahmad Rufai Bala Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria Kaduna, Nigeria.
  • Abdullahi Sahal Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Applied Sciences, Zaria Kaduna, Nigeria.


Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Herbal medicines, Typhoid, Bacterial Infections


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):14-19

Authors: Ahmad Rufai Bala1 and Abdullahi Sahal

Received: 17 September 2023/Accepted: 26 January 2024

There are current trends in information flow between traditional and conventional medical sciences, especially in the applications of herbs for the treatment of some diseases. Given this challenge, the present study was designed to screen the phytochemicals and anti-microbial activities of herbal medicines commonly used for the treatment of typhoid and bacterial/viral infection in Kaduna state. Samples collected were dried and extracted by maceration using distilled water. The Phytochemical screening of the herbal extracts was carried out using the method described by Sofowora, (2008). Agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods were used for the anti-microbial analysis. The result of the phytochemical screening reveals the presence of some important phytochemicals; Tannin (17.78%), Glycoside (15.56%), Polyphenol (15.56%), Flavonoids (13.33%), Saponi

n (13.33%), Terpenoid (8.89%), steroids (8.89%), alkaloids (6.67%) respectively. some of the herbal extracts showed a broad spectrum of anti-bacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14  – to 26 mm. The MIC and MBC values ranged from 80mg/ml to 100mg/ml respectively. The results of this research provide the baseline scientific proof that some herbal medicines with phytochemicals exert antimicrobial activities and hence justify the traditional use of some herbal medicines in the treatment of typhoid and infections.


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Author Biographies

Ahmad Rufai Bala, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria Kaduna, Nigeria.

1Department of IJMB Science, School of Advanced and Preliminary Studies

Abdullahi Sahal, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Applied Sciences, Zaria Kaduna, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Applied Sciences


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