Modifications, Surface Morphology, and Mineral Composition of Clay Obtained from Southern Nigeria
Keywords:acid-leached clay, albite, calcined clay, muscovite, nacrite, silicate mineral
Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(1): 40-56
Authors: Ukeme O. Isaac, Ibanga O. Isaac*, Itoro E. Willie, Etiyene I. Essiet, Rasheed Babalola, and Udo J. Ibok
Received: 18 March 2023/Accepted 25 September 2023
The concept of green chemistry has in recent times played a vital role in the processing of feedstocks from locally sourced materials for the production of vast industrial products. This has, to a greater extent, resulted in the sustainability of a greener environment and economy. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral composition, characterization, and modifications of clay obtained from southern Nigeria. The clay sample collected at Ikot Ekang, Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, was leached with a mixture of concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid and trioxonitrate (V) acid (4:1 v/v) to obtain acid-leached clay (AC). The acid-treated clay was calcined at a high temperature of 1050 °C for 2 hours to obtain modified calcined clay (CC). The untreated clay was labeled OC. The surface characteristics, functional groups, minerals, oxides, and elemental compositions of OC, AC, and CC were evaluated using standard methods. The OC and AC show three absorption bands at 3623–3693.8 cm-1 regions. These peaks were absent in the CC sample. There was no significant difference at p ˂ 0.05 in the mineral composition among the OC, AC, and CC samples, and the p-value was 0.999958. The Pearson correlation coefficient shows that the minerals of sample CC were strongly positively correlated with those of OC (R = 0.774; R2 = 0.5991) and AC (R = 0.9436; R2 = 0.8904). The percentage of quartz, syn, muscovite, and orthoclase minerals in OC, AC, and CC varied between 31–56%, 8.1–23%, and 1.87–9.8%, respectively. The surface morphology of the OC sample was plate-like, while surface porosity increased from AC to CC. The clay sample from southern Nigeria is mainly kaolinite clay, and the modification of clay through leaching with acid and calcination improves the mineral composition and quality of the clay minerals.
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