ATR-FTIR Quantitation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and Ethanol in Some Covid-19 Targeted Hand Sanitizers in Nigeria


  • E. D. Paul Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • Casmir Emmanuel Gimba Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


CoV-2, COVID-19, hand sanitizers, isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, quantitation, ATR-FTIR


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020, 7(1):8-13

Authors: D. Paul* O. B. Adesina and *C. E. Gimba

Received 05 February 2021/Accepted 20 February 2021

The Corona Virus originated from Wuhan, China in the later part of 2019. As at the end of 2020, no medication or vaccine is available for the treatment and/ or control of the Covid-19 pandemic yet. However, preventive measures have been suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) which include proper and regular personal hygiene and a healthy life style. Regular washing of hands using soap and water and the use of Hand sanitizers have been suggested as the first line of defense against the SARS COV2 virus. In this study, the Shimadzu FTIR-8400S Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) accessory was used for the quantitation of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and Ethanol content of nineteen (19) different brands of hand sanitizers used in Kaduna state, Nigeria and its environs for the non-pharmaceutical prevention of COVID-19. Results revealed an Isopropyl alcohol concentration in the range of 10.155% to 85.684% and an Ethanol concentration in the range. Of the nineteen samples studied, five had an IPA concentration below 50%. Nine of the samples had concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended 75%. The implications on the health of the populace, with respect to the efforts to combat and contain the ravaging SARS COV-2 virus and the resultant COVID-19 are discussed


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Author Biographies

E. D. Paul, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Casmir Emmanuel Gimba, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry


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