Application of Moringa oleifera as a Natural Coagulant for the Treatment of wastewater from Bakery and Brewery Industries in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Keywords:Brewery, bakery, wastewater, bacteriological and physicochemical analysis, treatment, Moringa oleifera
Communication in Physical Sciences, 2021, 7(4):263-277
Authors: Itoro U. Okon., Eteyen A.Uko., Aniebiet M. Essien, Rachel S. Okon. and H. H. Oronubong
Received: 27 October 2021/Accepted 05 December 2021
The use of Moringa oleifera as a natural coagulant for the treatment of bakery and brewery industrial wastewater was carried out using microbiological, phytochemical and physicochemical methods. The mean bacterial count obtained from the brewery wastewater ranged from 4.1 x 105 to 5.3 x 105 cfu/ml, The mean coliform count ranged from 2.2 x 104 to 3.1 x 104cfu/ml, while the mean fungal count ranged from 3.9 x 104 to 4.1 x 104cfu/ml Wastewater from the bakery had a mean bacterial count that ranged from3.9 x 105 to 4.2 x 105cfu/ml and the coliform count which ranged from 3.8 x104 to 6.3 x 104cfu/ml. There was a significant different (P > 0.05) between the microbial counts of the wastewater samples from the two sources. The mean bacterial count for brewery wastewater pre-treated with charcoal ranged from 3.0 x 105 to 3.9x105cfu/ml, mean coliform count ranged from 2.0 x 105 to 2.9 x 104cfu/ml, and mean fungal count ranged from 3.8 x 104 to 3.9 x 104 cfu/ml. The mean bacterial, coliform count and fungal counts of the bakery wastewater after pre-treatment with charcoal were within the following range, wastewater 3.7 x 105 to 4.0 x 105cfu/ml, 3.6 x 105 and 6.0 x105cfu/ml, and 3.0 x105 and 3.2 x 105cfu/ml. The microbial isolates obtained from the brewery, bakery, charcoal filtered brewery, and bakery wastewater occurrence were; Bacillus sp, Enterobacter sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp, Aspergillus sp, and Fusarium sp, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Penicillium sp, Staphylococcus aureus 3(8.3%), Staphylococcus sp, Saccharomyces sp, and Rhizopus sp. Results obtained from physicochemical analysis showed values for Physiochemical analyses showed : COD (0.38 ± 0.01 mg/L), (22.30 ± 0.11 °C), turbidity( 843 ± 0.20 NTU), DO (4.49 ± 0.01 mg/L), BOD (0.29 ± 0.01 mg/L) and pH (4.68 ± 0.10) for bakery wastewater, while the corresponding values for wastewater from the brewery industry were 0.23 ± 0.02 mg/L, 8.01 ± 0.08 °C, 10.13 ± 0.03 NTU, 2.40 ± 0.01 mg/L, 0.13 ± 0.03 mg/L and 5.83 ± 0.30 respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, .flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenes, and tannins. Terpenes were present in the seed while it was not detected in the flowering part. The treatment of the wastewater with, M. oleifera ground seed inhibited bacterial load in bakery wastewater but the inhibition for brewery wastewater started at 100 mg, and the ground flower inhibited from 150mg
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