Preparation and Characterization of African Star Apple Seed Shell (Chrysophyllum Africanum) For The Removal of Acid Red 9


  • Kabiru Usman Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • H. Abba Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • O. R. A. Iyun Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


Water contamination, dye, remediation, adsorption, activated carbon, African apple seed


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(1): 23-32

Authors: Kabiru  Usman, H. Abba and O. R. A. Iyun

Received: 12 January 2022/Accepted  04 March 2022

In the present work, activated carbon (AC), prepared from the shells of  African star apple seed (Chrysophyllum Africanum)   (and modified with H3PO4) were characterized (with SEM and FTIR) and applied for the adsorption removal of Acid red 9 dye from aqueous solution. The scanning electron micrograph of the adsorbent showed an unsmooth appearance with irregularly arranged molecular units while the FTIR spectrum showed some carbon associated bonds. The application of the Central Composite Design (CCD) for response surface analysis led to a projection that 97% removal of acid dye could be achieved in 60 minutes with an adsorbent dosage of 1.4 g at a pH of 6. The adsorption isotherm parameters were analyzed. The adsorption process followed Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of this seed can be utilized for the treatment of strongly polluted industrial wastewaters containing acid dye.


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Author Biographies

Kabiru Usman, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

H. Abba , Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

O. R. A. Iyun, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry


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