Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity Screening of Extracts from the Leaf of Emilia coccinea (SIMS) G.don
Keywords:Phytochemicals, Emilia coccinea, antioxidant, free radicals, plant extract
Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(3): 325-330
Authors: Okenwa Uchenna Igwe and Ugochukwu Clinton Akwada
Received: 17 March 2022/Accepted 06 June 2022
Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don, is widely used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of tumors, inflammation, cough, rheumatism, fever, dysentery, wounds and in the prevention of some health challenges. However, little is known of their actual phytochemical content concerning their various medicinal and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, preliminary and quantitative phytochemical properties of E. coccinea leaves were evaluated using recommended analytical procedures. The results obtained indicated the presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids (0.57 ± 0.01), alkaloids (3.87 ± 0.02), tannins (0.15 ± 0.01), saponins (0.39 ± 0.02) and phenols (0.43 ± 0.01). The high concentration of alkaloids and moderate concentration of other phytochemicals proved that E. coccinea extract has some potential for pharmaceutical applications. E. coccinea leaves extract also exhibited significant antioxidant activity at a minimum and maximum concentrations of 2.0 and 12.0 mg/ml respectively (compared to the ascorbic acid used as a standard free scavenger). The component identified in the plant has established literature on its medicinal and physiological associated benefits.
Asongalem, E. A., Foyet, H. S., Ekobo, S., Dimo, T. & Kamtchouing, P. (2004). Anti-inflammatory, lack of central analgesia and antipyretic properties of Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anderson. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95, 1, pp. 63-68.
Boham, A. B. & Kocipai, A. C. (1994). Flavonoid and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian vaccininum vaticulum and vicalycinium.Pacific Science., 48, pp. 458-463
Barakat, M. Z., Shehab S, .K., Darwish N. & Zahermy E.I. (1993). Determination of ascorbic acid from plants. Analyst Biochemistry, 53, pp. 225-245
Edeoga H.O., Okwu D. E.& Mbaebie B.O.(2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology.4, 7, pp. 685-688.
Friday, C., Akwada, U. & Igwe, O. U. (2018). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of Afzeliaafricana and Detarium micro carpum seeds. Chemistry International, 4, 2, pp. 170-176.
Galleano, M., Calabro, V. & Prince, P. D. (2012). Flavonoids and metabolic syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1259, 1, pp. 87–94.
Harborne J.B (1973). Phytochemical methods, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 113
Hou, D. X. & Kumamoto, T. (2010). Flavonoids as protein kinase inhibitors for cancer chemoprevention: direct binding and molecular modeling. Antioxidant Redox Signals, 13, 5, pp. 691-719.
Igoli, J. O., Ogaji, O. G., Tor-Anyiin, T. A. & Igoli, N. P. (2005). Traditional medicine practice amongst the Igede people of Nigeria part II. African Journal of Traditional medidicine, 2, 2, pp. 134-152.
Igwe, O. U. & Echeme, J. O. (2013). Isolation, Characterization and a1ntibacterial activity of 4-(4-phenyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl) pentenoic acid from the stem bark of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms. International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 5, 2, pp. 335-340.
Igwe, O. U. & Okwu, D. E. (2013). Isolation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of 3-hydroxy-2,2-bis(6-methoxy-3-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-yl)propanal from the stem exudates of BrachystegiaeurycomaHarms. Der pharma Chemica Journal for Medicinal Chemistry, 5, 2, pp. 39-44.
Igwe, O. U. (2014). Chromatographic and spectrometric characterization of bioactive compounds from the leaves of Hyptis lanceolata. International Journal of chemical and Physical Science, 2(1), 547-553.
Igwe, O. U. (2014). Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of Brachystegia eurycoma seeds and stem bark.Der Pharma Chemical Journal for Medicinal Chemistry, 5, 1, pp. 224-228.
Igwe, O. U. & Onuoha, P. U. (2016). Potentials of Citrulluslanatusseeds as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents and a probe of their phytochemicals. International Journal of Chemical, Material and Environmental Research, 3, 3, pp. 62-67.
Igwe, U.O. & Akabuike, H.C. (2016). Free radical scavenging activity, phytochemistry and antimicrobial properties of Tetraplueratetrapteraseeds. International research journal of Chemical sciences, 3, 2, pp. 37-42.
James CS (1995). Experimental methods in analytical chemistry of foods. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 28.
Kamboj A. & Saluja A. K.(2011). Isolation of stigmasterol and β -Sitosterol from petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae). International. Journal Pharmaceutical. Science. 1, pp. 94-96.
Koche, D., Shirsat, R.& Kawale, M. (2016). An overview of major classes of phytochemicals: their types and role in disease prevention. Hislopia Journal, 9, 2, pp. 1-11.
Manach, C., Mazur, A. & Scalbert, A. (2005). Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 16 , 1, pp. 77–84.
Nwachukwu, V. A., Udedi, S. V., Ezeonu, F.C., Bartholomeu .I.C., Ezeanyanaso, C. S & Elemo, G.N. (2017) . Bioactive Agents, Nutraceuticals potentials, Phytochemistry and Food value of Emilia coccinea leaf. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 4, 1, pp. 1-15.
Obadoni. B.O. & Ohuko. P. O. (2001). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of crude extracts of some Homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta State of Nigeria. Global.Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.8, 5, 203-208.
Pisoschi, A. M., Cheregi, M. C. & Danet, A. F. (2009). Total antioxidant capacity of some commercial fruit juices: electrochemical and spectrophotometrical approaches. Molecules, 14, 1, pp. 480-893.
Shahidi F, Chavan U.D, Bal A.K. & Mckenzie DB (1999). Chemical composition of beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) plant parts. Food Chemistry, 64, pp. 39-44.
Shastri, M. D., Shukla, S. D., Chong, W. C., Dua, K., Peterson, G. M., Patel, R. P., Hansbro, P. M., Eri, R. & Otoole, R. F. (2018). Role of oxidative stress in the pathology and management of human tuberculosis. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 7, pp. 10.
Teke G.N., Kuiate J.R., NgouateuO.B. & Gatsing D. (2007). Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 112, pp. 278-283.
Van- Burden T.P. & Robinson W.C (1981). Formation of complexes between protein and tannin acid. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 1, pp. 77-82
Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal and the author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.