Study of Potential Effect and Health Benefits of Soaking Time on the Nutritional Composition and Some Anti-Nutrient Factors in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)


  • Ifiok Dominic Uffia Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Ofonimeh Emmanuel Udofia Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Christiana Samuel Udofia Department of Biolgical Sciences


Vigna unguiculata, anti-nutrients., potential effect, water soaking


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 429-437

Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(3): 429-437

Authors: Ifiok Dominic Uffia, Ofonimeh Emmanuel Udofia, Christiana Samuel Udofia

Received: 02 January 2024/Accepted: 02 May 2024

The study of the potential effect and health benefits of water soaking time on the nutritional composition and some anti-nutrient factors (phytate, hydrocyanic acid, oxalate, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloid and tannins) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was determined. Cowpea seeds were divided into three batches of 100g each. Two batches were soaked in clean tap water for one and two hours respectively.  The result revealed that the moisture contents of cowpeas increased with soaking time from (7.87%  at 0hour, 50.52% at 1 hour to 53.35% at 2 hours); fat from (1.45% at 0hour, 1.57 at 1 hour to 2.25% at 2 hours), also increasing with soaking time were carbohydrate and caloric contents of the cowpea from (70.25% at 0hour, 70.96% at 1hour to 74.00% at 2hours) and (383.67% at 0hour, 384.76% at 1hour to 390. 43 at 2hours%) respectively. It was also observed that soaking of cowpea for one and two hours independently decreased the protein, fibre & ash contents of the cowpea ranging from (22.40% to 18.55% protein), (2.36% to 2.08% fibre) and (3.5398% to 3.1204% ash). All the anti-nutrients studied recorded slight reductions except oxalates and alkaloids which were significantly (P<0.05) reduced with soaking time. This indicates that longer water soaking time is an effective way of lowering toxic substances in legume-based foods and enhancing nutrient bioavailability.





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Author Biographies

Ifiok Dominic Uffia, Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Genetics and Biotechnology

Ofonimeh Emmanuel Udofia, Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Genetics and Biotechnology

Christiana Samuel Udofia, Department of Biolgical Sciences

Akwa Ibom State Polytechenic, Ikot Osurua, Akwa Ibom State,


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