Main Article Content
Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(1):7-13
Author: Yusuf Buhari, Salisu Mansur Dabai & Abubakar Abdulazeez
Received 12 January 2020/Accepted 23 March 2020
Giardiasis is caused by Giardia doudenalis and is a protozoan parasitic infection associated with poor socioeconomic conditions and therefore most commonly found in highly impoverished countries. This disease is associated with public clusters such as correctional and day care centers as well as public recreational centers such as swimming pools, especially in absence of good personal and environmental hygiene. It is often transmitted through infected fomites, contaminated water and food. Because sexual transmission has been documented, coinfection with HIV/AIDS have been reported and the disease has been declared a member of venereal diseases, hence, an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. It has been seen in various ages, but prevalence is mostly higher among children, which has been associated with transmission through the fecal-oral route due to such behaviors as encopresis, finger sucking, sand eating and nail biting among others. This review assesses the prevalence of Giardiasis in some states in Nigeria through convenient sampling of available literature.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Atu, B. O., Obijiaku, N. I. I. & Yakubu, S. E. (2014). Prevalence of pathogenic protozoa infection in humans and their associated risk factors in Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 3.2, pp. 007-016.
Atu, B.O., Jimoh, P.O. & Soom, S.T. (2016). Effects of Socio-Economic Factors and Hygiene Habits on Diarrhoeal Agents in Orphanages in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, 30, 2, pp. 3389-3394.
Kolawole, O. M., Durowade, K. A. & Kolawole, C. F. (2009). Prevalence of Giardiasis among Children in Guma Refugee Camp in Guma LGA, Benue State, Nigeria. Saudi medical Journal, 6, 1, pp. 32-39
Bean, N. H., Goulding, J. S., Lao, C. & Angulo, F. J. (1996). Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks- United States, 1988-1992.CDC Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 45(NSS-5): 1-66.
Birkhead, G. & Vogt, R. L. (1989). Epidemiologic surveillance for endemic G. lamblia infection in Vermont: The roles of waterborne and person to person transmission. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, pp.762-768.
Biu, A. A., Bintu, I., and Agbadu, E. T. (2009). Prevalence of giardiasis among out-patients of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences, 5, 4, pp. 171-174.
Center for Food Safety & Public Health (CFSPH) (2012). College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University (2012). Giardia Enteritis, Lambliasis, Beaver Fever Last Updated: December 2012.
Danciger, M & Lopez, M. (1975) Number of Giardia in the feces of infected children. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 24, 2, pp. 237-242.
Ekundayo, O. J., Aliyu, M. H. & Jolly, P. E. A. (2007). Review of intestinal helminthiasis in Nigeria and the need for a school - based intervention. Journal of Rural Tropical Public Health, 6, pp. 33-39.
Ellis, J. E., Wingfield, J. M., Cole, D., P. F. L. & Lloyd, D. (1993). Oxygen affinities of metronidazole resistant and sensitive stocks of G. intestinalis. International journal of parasitology, 23, 1, pp. 35-39.
Esfaridiari, A., Swartz, J. & Teklehaimanot, S. (1997). Clustering of giardiasis among AIDS patients in Los Angeles County. Cell & Molecular Biology, 43, pp.1077-1083.
Farthing, M. J. C. (1993). Pathogenesis of giardiasis In: Diarrhoeal disease: Current concepts and future challenges. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 87, 3, pp. 17-21.
Gilman, R. H., Miranda, E., Marquis, G. S., Vestegui, M.& Martinez, H. (1988). Rapid re-infection by G. lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic. Third World Community Lancet, 1,343-345.
Gimba, U. N. & Dawan, N. N. (2015). Epidemiological status of Intestinal parasitic infection rates in children attending Quaqualada township Clinic, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. American Journals of Research Communication, 3, 2, pp. 97-110.
Gundel, H. & Hermann, F. (2002). Review: HIV infection and Tropical Parasitic Diseases-deleterious interactions in both directions? Tropical Medicine and International Health pp. 7, 6, pp. 479-488.
Okpala, H. O., Josiah, S. J., Oranekwulu, M. U. & Ovie, E. G. (2014). Prevalence of intestinal parasites among Children in Day Care Centres in Esan West Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, pp. 4:34-39.
Haggerty, M. (2006). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Medical Encyclopedia Retrieved from http://www.answers.com.
Helen, I. I., Binta, Y. & Sabo, Y. E. (2011). Asymptomatic Giardiasis and Nutritional Status of Children in Two Local Government Areas in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research., 3,3.pp. 157-162.
Kasprazak, W. & Pawlowski, Z. (1989). Zoonotic Aspect of Giardiasis. A review. Veterinary Parasitology, 32, pp.101-108.
Meyers, J. D., Kuharic, H. A. & Holmes, K. K. (1977). G. lamblia infection in homosexual men. British Journal of Veneral Diseases, 53, pp. 54-55.
Mohammed, Y., Aliyu, M., Dabo, N.T., Adabara, N. U., Otone, B. & Ige, A.O. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites infection among primary school pupils in bosso local government area, niger state, Nigeria, African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 16, 1, pp. 45-48.
Monajemzadeh, S. M. & Monajemzadeh, M. (2008). Comparison of iron and haematological Indices in Giardia lamblia infection before and after treatment in 102 children in Ahwaz,Iran. Medical science monitor, 14,1, pp. 19-23.
Neva, F. A. & Brown, H. W. (1994). Basic Clinical Parasitology. 6th ed. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange; 1994. Ogbolu, D. O., Anorue, M. C., Terry O. A., Olaosun, I. I. & Olusoga-Ogbolu, F. F. (2009). Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun State. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 12, 3, pp. 181-185.
Polis, M, A., Tuazon, C. U., Alling, D. W. & Talmanis, E. (1986). Transmission of Giardia lamblia from a day care centre to the community. American Journal of Public Health, 76, pp. 1142-1144.
Porter, J. D., Ragazzoni, H. P., Buchanon, J. D., Waskin, H. A., Juranek, D. D. & Perkin, W. E. (1988). Giardia transmission in a swimming pool. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 6, pp. 659-662.
Reitmeyer, M. & Robertson, S. (1997). Giardiasis. Chief Medical Resident’s Clinical medicine conference 1996-1997. Charlottesville, Virginia, University of Virginia
Schmerin, M. J., Jones, T. C. & Klerin, H. (1978). Giardiasis: Association with homosexuality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 88, 801-803.
Solomons, N. W. (1982). Giardiasis: Nutritional implications. Review of infectious Diseases, 4(4):859-69.
Stuart, J. M., Orr, H. J., Warburton, F. G., Jekayanth, S., Pugh, C., Morris, ., , Sarangi, J. & Nichols, G. (2003). Risk factors for sporadic giardiasis: a case control study in Southwestern England. Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 2, pp. 229-233.
Tellez, A., Morales, W., Rivera, T., Meyer, ]E., Leiva, B. & Linder, E. (1997). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the population of Leon Nicaragua. Acta Tropica, 66, 119 125.
Thomas, H. Z., Jatau, E. D., Inabo, H. I. & Garba, D. D. (2014). Prevalence of International heiminths among Primary School Children in Chikun and Kaduna South Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 2,2, pp. 6-11.
Usip, L. P. & Ita, A. (2017). Comparative prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in public and private schools in Calabar South, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. American Journal of Research Communication, 5, 1, pp. 80-97.
Usip, L. P. & Nwosu, C. (2013). The Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths and the efficacy of Antihelminthic (Le Vanusol) drug among primary school children in Abak, Abak Local Government Area. Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Basic Research Journal of Medicine and Clinical Sciences, 2,5, pp. 52-58.
Wagbastoma, V. A. & Aisien, M. S. (2005). Helminthic in selected children seen at the Liberian of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 12, pp. 23-27.
Wallis, P. M., Erlandsen, S. L., Isaac-Renton, J. L., Olson, M. E., Robertson, W. J. & Vankeulen, H. (1998). Prevalence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts and characterization of Giardia spp. Isolated from drinking water in Canada. Journal of Applied Environmental Microbiology, 62, 8, pp. 2789-2797.
Walsh, J. A. & Kenneth, S. W. (1979). Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. New England Journal of Medicine, 301, 18, pp. 967-974
World Health Organization (1996). The world health report on fighting disease, fostering development. WHO/CDS/IPI. 98, 3. Geneve, WHO.
Yahaya, R. & Dogara, M. M. (2018). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis among patients in a secondary health facility, Dutse, Jigawa state, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 39, 1, pp. 84-90.