Quality Evaluation of Some Brands of Amoxicillin Capsules Dispensed in Lagos State, Nigeria


  • Emeka Chima Ogoko National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Kelle Henrietta Ijeoma Faculty of Science, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Gana J. Babaman National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Yaba Lagos, Nigeria


amoxicillin, concentration, disintegration, weight uniformity, heavy metal


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2021, 7(4): 554 – 562

Authors: Emeka C. Ogoko*, Henrietta I. Kelle1 and Gana J. Babaman
Received: 2 July 2021/Accepted: 27 December 2021/

The efficacy of amoxicillin drug depends on the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, which is amoxicillin trihydrate. Amoxicillin also contains gelatin, carmoisine, quinoline yellow, titanium dioxide and iron oxide yellow. Some reports on the production and distribution of adulterated drugs have been recorded in several parts of Nigeria. This study investigated the quality of amoxicillin obtained from some patent drug stores in Lagos state, Nigeria. Analysis of weight uniformity, and disintegration were performed using standard methods. Determinations of the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredient and heavy
metals in amoxicillin samples were assayed through the employment of a high performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) instrument respectively. Analytical results obtained, revealed that the weight of twenty samples of amoxicillin were within the compendia specification for uniformity of weight. The disintegration rates ranged from 4.01±0.3 to 7.13±0.2 minutes and were also
within the permissible limits of ≤15 minutes. The percentage compositions of amoxicillin in
the various analysed brands ranged from 91.2 to 100.4%, which are also within the
recommended limits. The heavy metals concentrations in amoxicillin were within the
permitted limit of ≤ 20 ppm. The results of this study revealed that the ten brands of
amoxicillin samples analysed, conformed to the standard recommended limits and may not
constitute medical threats beyond the expected range


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Author Biographies

Emeka Chima Ogoko, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science

Kelle Henrietta Ijeoma, Faculty of Science, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Gana J. Babaman, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Yaba Lagos, Nigeria

Central Drug Laboratory


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