Main Article Content
Communication in Physical Sciences 1(1)35 -42
Author: M. Ejikeme,
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was recovered front cashew nut shells obtained from Ihube—Okigwe, Abia State by solvent extraction. The CNSL was treated with calcitun hydroxide at cunbient and elevated tenperatures to produce Iüned-CNSL products. The products were characterized and used tofonnulate oleoresinous varnishes using blown linseed oil, soybean and soybean-linseed alkyds as the oil bases.Results showed that the drying peffonnances of the varnishes were moderate and they showed high gloss. The resistance of the varnishes prepared with different alkyd resins to water and acid media was very good, fair for base Ineditun, and generally conparable to that of conunercial products. The drying property of both the product with and without driers is discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
George T. Austin (1984); Shreves Chemical Process Industries, 5th Edition McGraw — Hill, Inc, 430-440.
Harvey, M. T. and Caplan S. (1978). Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, Ind. and Eng. Chem.. 32(10). 1978.
Menon, A. R. R.- Aigbodion, A. I.. Pillai. C. K. S.. Mathew. N. M. and Bhagawan, S. S. (2002). Processability Characteristics and Physicomechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Modified with Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid-Formaldehyde Resin. European Polymer J., 38(1). 163-168.
Akaranta, O. (1996). Wood Finishes from Modified Coconut Coir Dust Extract, Pigment and Resin Technology. 25 (5), 11-15.
Wankasi, D. and Akaranta. O. (2002). Studies on Cashew (Anacardium) Nut Shell Liquid and Resorcinol Modified Peanut Skin Tannin Extract for Wood Adhesives. Pigment and Resin Technology. 31(3). 155-159.
Akaranta. O.. Donbebe. W. and ()dozi.(1996). Plywood Adhesives Based on Red(.)nion-Sk'in Extract Nlodified
SheN Liquid. B 101-esouree
L. E. (2003). Svnthesis and
Characterisation of Cashew Nut Shell LiquidModified Resin Coating- Nic. J. Polymer Sc. Technol. 202-205.
Ikeda. R.. Tanaka. H.. Uyama. H. and Kobayashi. S. (2()()2). Synthesis and Curing behaviors of a Crosslinkable Polynler trom Cahew Nut Shell Liquid. Polymer. 43( 12). 3475-3481.
Swain. S.. Sahoo, S., Mohapatra. D. K., Mishra, B. K., Lenka, S. and Nayak, P. L. (2003). Pokymers from Renewable Resources. V. Synthesis and Characterization of
Thermosetting Resins derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)-Furfural-substituted Aromatic Compounds. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 54(10). 1413-1421.
Tyman. J.H.P. (1980). "Cultivation. Processing and Utilisation of the Cashew". Chemistry and Industry. 2. 59-62
Van Sclvalkwyk. J.D.. Marais. J.L.C. and Neuse, E.W. (1976). Epoxidation of Cardanol with Peroxycarboximidic Acids. Indian J . Chemistry. 14B. 955-960.
Gajaman. A and Misra. A. (1978). "Water Thinnable Resin Varnishes from CNSL based Resins" Indio, 12, 145 -168.
Tyman J.H.P. (1976). Long Chain Phenols VIN: Quantitative Analysis of the Unsaturated Constituents of Phenolic Lipids by Thin-Layer Chrotnatom•aphy-Mass Spectronwtry. J . -36(2). 289-300.
C. P. R. g i9i3) Journal 4942
j. Nibba Ruo. P. . ESrinivasa Rae. A. Isolation of Cadarnoi fron) I eenlllcai C ashexv (Anacardiutn occidentale L.) Nut Shell Liquid. J. Agric Food Chen).. 16).
M. T.. Pfundstein. B.. Haubner. R.iirtele. G.. Spiegelhalder. B.. Burtsch, H. and Owen. R. W. (2()()6). Characterization of Alkyl Phenols in Cashew (antioxidants) Products and Assay of their Antioxidant Capacity. Food Chenl. Toxicology. 44(2). 188-189.
Philip, J. Y., Da Cruz Francisco, J., Dey, E. S., Buchweishaija, J., Mkayula, L. L., and Ye, L. (2008). Isolation of Anacardic Acid from Natural Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) using Supercritical Carbondioxide, J. Agric Food Chem., 56(20), 9350-9354.
Edoga, M. O., Fadipe, L and Edoga, R. N. (2006). Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell, Leonardo Electronic J. of Practices and Technologies, 5(9), 107-112.
Tyman, J.H.P (1975). J. Chromatography, 111, 277 & 285.
Spychaj, S. and Balta Calleja, F. J. (1993). "Mechanical Properties of Hardened
Unsaturated Polyester Resins Thickened with Magnesium Oxide". Journal of Material Science Letters, 12, 1253-1257.
Szekely-Pecsi, Z. S., Vansco-Szmercsanyi, F., cser, F., Varga, J. and Belina, K. (1981). J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 19, 703. In ref. 11.
D' Allelo, G. F. (1946) "Experimental Plastics & Synthetic Resins". John Wiley and Sons Ltd., NY, 163.
Gardner, H. A., and Sward, G.G., (1946) "Physical and Chemical Examination of Paints, Varnishes and Colours" Gardner Lab Inc, Maryland, USA
Schulka, S.D and Pandey, G.N. (1979) A Textbook of Chemical Technology 2, Vikes. New Delhi, 189-199
Akaranta O. & A.C.I. Anusiem (1996) "A Bioresource solvent for the Extraction of
Castor Oil", Industrial Crops and Products, 5, 276
Treybal R. E. (1980) Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd Edition Mc Graw-Hill Inc. NY. 717.
Anyaogu, I.D., Ejikeme, P.M. and Ibemesi. J.A. (2010). Development of Thixotropic Coatings using Dimerized Soybean Oil Fatty Acids: The Case of Polyamide of 1.2-Phenylene Diamine. J. Polym. Environ.. DOI: 10.1007/s10924-0100160-9.
Erich, s.J.F., Laven, J.. Pel. L. Huinink. H.P. & Kopinga, K. (2006). NMR Depth Profiling of Drying Alkyd Coatings 'With Catalysts. Progress in Organic Coatings. 55. 105-1 11.
Ikhuoria, E.U. and Aigbodion. A.I. (2006). Effect of Modification with Nitrocellulose and Phenol Formaldehyde Resins on some Performance Characteristics of Rubber Seed Oil Alkyds. Afri. J. Biotechnol. 10). 888-889.
Singh, S. (2009). Preparation and Analysis of Alkyd Resin from Deodourizer Distillate, J. Scientific and Ind. Res., 68, 807-811.
Nair, N.M. Unnikrishnan, K.G., Unnikrishnan, M. , and Nair, C.S.B. (1981). Utilisation of Rubber Seed Oil and Karinnotta Oil for the Preparation of Air-Drying Oil-Modified Alkyd Resins, Paintindia, xxxl, (5), 5-9.
Issam A.M. and Cheun, C.Y. (2009). A study of the Effect of Palm Oil on the Properties of New Alkyd Resin, Malaysian Polymer Journal, 42-49; www.fkkksa.utm.my/mpj.
Morgan, W.M. (1990). Outlines of Paint Technology, 3rd Ed., Edward Arnold Publishers, Great Britain, 167.
Onukwuli, O.D. and Igbokwe, P.K. (2008).
Production and Characterisation of Castor OilModified Alkyd Resins, J. Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 161-165.
Ikhuoria. E.U. Aigbodion, Ä.I. and Okieimen, F.E. (2004). Enhancing the Quality of Alkyd Resins using Methyl Esters of Rubber Seed Oil, Tropical J. Pharm. Res.. 3(1). 311-317; http://www.tjpr.freehosting.net.
Rheineck, E. Alfred (1966) Fed. Series on Coatings Technology Unit 4: Modern Varnish Technology Ed. Wayne R. Fuller. 39.
Nway, N.H. and Mya, M.O. (2008). Manufacture of Alkyd Resin from Castor Oil. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technol., 48, 155-161.
Kabasakal, O.S., Guner, F.S., Erciyes, A.T. and Yagci, Y. (1995). Styrenation of Oils Based on Secondary Esters of Castor, Oil, J. Coatings Technol., 67, (841), 47-51.
Radicevic, R. and Budinski-Simendic, J. (2005). The Effects of Alkyd/Melamine Resin Ratio and Curing Temperature on the Properties of the Coatings, J. Serbian Chem. soc., 70(4), 593-599.