Preliminary Screening of Medicinal plants in Nigeria for Phytochemicals and Essential Oils Constituents
Keywords:Essential oils, phytochemicals, percentage yield, steam distillation
Communication in Physical Sciences, 2020 6(1): 669-674
Received 27 August 2020/Accepted 01 September 2020
Applications of plant extracts for medicinal purpose is based on its phytochemical and essential oil components. Therefore, this study was designed to screen some medicinal plants that are typical to Nigerian environment for their essential oil and phytochemicals constituents. The tests results indicated that methanolic extract of the stem bark/leaves of Bosweillia dalzielii, Ocimum americanus, Hyptis spicigera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus cammaldulensis, vossia cuspidata, Lavandula officinalis, Cinnamondedrone cubenes, D. microcarpun, D. Mespilisformis, Isoberlinia doka, L. korstringi, and K. sengalensis contain basic metabolite and essential oils. The essential oil content deduced from steam distillation indicated significant concentrations in the studied plants.
Anyanwu, M. U. & Okoye R.C. (2017). antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Intercultural Ethnophar- macology., 6, 2, pp. 240-259.
Bala , S. A. (2006). Euphorbia hurta linn: In some ethnomedicinal plants of the Savanah regions of West Africa; Description and phytochemicals 1st edition the triumph publishing company Kano Nigeria pp 19-25.
Baser, K. H. (2010). Hand book of essential oils: science, technology, and application. CRC Press, London. 17-19.
Bognonou, A. G. S., Yedomonhan, H., Avlessi, F., Sohounhloue, D., Chalard, P., Chalchat, J. C., Delort, L., Billard, H., Caldefie-chezet, F. & Figueredo G. (2013); Volatile oil composition and antiploriferative activity of Hyptis spicigera lam against human breast adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7. Research Journal of Chemical Science. 3, 1, pp. 27-31.
Catherine, J. C & Kathi, J. K (2001). Lavender (Lavandula SPP) Longwood herbal Task force pp: 1-2.
Chitra, S., Patil, M. B. & Ravi, K. (2009). Wound healing activity of Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit (Lamiceae). International Jouenal of Pharm Tech Research 1, 3, pp. 737-744
Chris, C.O. (2006). The complete Drug Formulary. Luidoz Book international, Ontario, Canada, pp. 118.
Dalziel, J. M. (1956). Useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Crown Agents for Overseas Government and Administration, Mill Bank London pp: 398.
Duke, J. A., & Ayensu, E. S (1985) Medicinal Plants of China, Algonac, Mich. Reference publication MI U.S.A. pp: 4.
El-Mahmood, M. A. (2009). Antibacterial potential of crude leaf extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against some pthogenic bacteria. African Journal of Plant Science. 6, 4, pp, 202-209.
Elanaiem, E. M., L &, Z. A., Ibrahim, F. A. A., Abdul, B. A. A. & Rosna, M.T. (2015). Essential oil compositions and cytotoxicity from various Organs of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 17, pp, 320-326.
Emmanuel, C., Chukwuma, Mike, O. Soladoye, Roseline T. Feyisola (2015). Traditional medicine and the future of medicinal Plants in Nigeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 3, 4, pp. 23-29.
Fadeyi, N. G., Adeoye, A. E & Olowokodejo, J. D. (1989). Epidermal and phytochemical studies with genus of Boerhavia (Nyetanginaceae) crude Drug Research, 29, pp. 178-184.
Ghani, A. (2003). Medicinal plants of Bangladesh, the Asiatic society of Bangladesh, 3rd Ed. pp: 21-28, 234-235 .
Hans-Walter, H. (2005). Plant Biochemistry 3rd edition Elsevier Academics press, California, U.S.A, PP: 408-411.
Harbone, J. B. (1998). Phytochemical method: A Guide to Modern Techniques of plants analysis, chapman and Hall, London, pp. 182-190.
Hassan, H. S., Musa, A. M., Usman, M. A. & Abdulazeez, M. (2009). Preliminary Phytochemistry and Antipasmodic Studies of the Stem Bark of Bosweillia dalzielii. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 8, 1, pp, 1-6.
Huang, W. & Cai, Y. (2010). Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal Herbs and Dietry plant: Potential use for Cancer prevention. Taylor and Francis Nutrition and Cancer. 1, 62, pp. 1-20.
Jerovetz,, L., Buchbauer, G., Paschwwann, C. & Ngassoum, M. B. (2000). Investigations of Aromatic Plants from Cameroon. Analysis of the Essential oils of Hyptis spicigera (L) by GC, GC/MS and Olfactometry. Journal of Essential oil Bearing Plants. 3, pp. 71-77.
Kingston, D. G., Rao, M. M. & Zucker, W. V. (1979). Plant Anticancer Agents. Ix constituent of Hptis Suaveolens. Journal of Natural product. 42, 5, pp. 496-499.
Kini, F., Kam, B., Aycard, J. P., Gaydon, E. M. & Bombarda, I. (1993). Chemical Composition of the Essential oil of Hyptis spicigera Lam. From Burkinafaso. J. essenti. Oil Res 5, 2, pp. 219-221.
Koba, K., Raymoud, C., Millet, J., Chaumout, J. P. & Sanda K. (2007). Chemical composition of Hyptis pectinata L. H. lanceolata poit H. Suaveolens L and H. spicigera Lam, Essential oil from Togo Journal of Essential oil Bearing Plant 10, 5, pp. 357-364 .
Kubmarawa, D., Akiniyi, J. A. & Okorie, D. A. (2013). Ethnomedicinal survey of traditional medicine of Lala people of Nigeria. International Journal of Medicinal plant and Alternative Medicine. 1, 3, pp. 39-57.
Kubmarawa, D., Oguwande, I. O., Okorie, D. A., Olawone, N. O. & Adaleke, K. (2011). Constituent of essential oil of Bosweillia dazielin Hutch from Nigeria. Journal of Essential oil Research. 10, pp. 119-120.
Kubmarawa, D., Ajoku, G. A., Enwerem N. M. & Okorie D.A. (2007). Preliminary Phytochemical and Antimicrobial screening of 50 Medicinal plants from Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 6, 14, pp. 1690-1696.
Ladan, Z., Anupitan, J. O., Oyele, A. O., Okonkwo, E. M., Ladan, E. O., Odjobo, B. & Habila, N. (2011). Chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oil of Hyptis spicigera Against Trypanosoma brucei brucei Found in North-Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 5, 4, pp. 53-58
Lambert, J., Arnason, J. T. & Philogene, R. J. B. (2000). Bruchid control with traditionally use insecticidal plants, Hyptis spicigera and Cassia nigricans. Insect Science Application. 6, pp. 167-170.
Oakenfull D. (1996). Saponins in the treatment of hypocholesterlemia. Handbook of Lipid in Human Nutrition. Spiller G.A Edd. C.R.C Press, pp. 1-12.
Odebiyi, A. & Sofowora, A. E. (1990). Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants part III Lloydia 41, pp. 234-246.
Okwu, D. E., (2001). Evaluation of the chemical agents. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 7, 3, pp. 455-459.
Osuagwu, G. G. E. (2008). The effect of rate of application poultry manure on the phenol flavonoid and steroid potential of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Environment 10, 2, pp. 106-111.
Owokotomo, I. A., Ekundayo, O. & Dina, O. (2012). Ocimum Gratissumum the brine hrumps lethality of a new chemotype grown in South Western Nigeria. Global Journal of Science frontier Research chemistry. 12, 6, pp. 56-49.
Runde, M. & Kubmarawa D. (2015). Compositional Analysis and Antimyco bacterium, Tuberculosis activity of essential oil of Hyptis Spicigera Lamiceae obtained from North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research. 4, 9, pp. 2319-7064.
Runde, M., Kubmarawa, D. & Maina, H. M. (2015). Compositional analysis and anti-oxidant assessment of essential oil of some aromatic plants obtained from North-Eastern Nigeria. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 5, 10, pp. 7-12.
Sidibe, L., Chachat, J. C., Garry, R. P & Harama, M. (2001). Aromatic Plants of Mali (part III): Chemical Composition of Essential oil of 2 Hyptis species, Hyptis suaveolens (L)poit and H. spicigera Lam. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 13, 1, pp. 55-57.
Shaghal, M. H., Kubmarawa, D., Tadzabia, K. & Dennis, K.I (2012). Evaluation, phytochemical and antimicrobial potentials of roots stem back Eucalyptus camaldulensis. African Journal of pure and Applied Chemistry. 6, 5, pp. 74-77.
Takayama, C., de-Faria, F. M., de-almeida, A. C., Valim-Arayo, D. A., Rehen, C. S., Dundar, R. S., Socca E.A., Manzo L.P., Rozza L.A., Salvador, M. J., Pellizon, C. H., Hiruma-lima C. A., Linz-ferreira , A. & Souza-brito, A. R. (2012). Gastroprotective and Ulcer Healing Effects of Essential oil from Hyptis spicigera Lam. Journal; of Ethnopharmacoy 135, 1, pp. 147-155.
Tchoumbougnang, F., Zollo, P. H. A., Boyon, F. F., Nyegue, M. A., Bessiere, J. M & Menut, C. (2005). Aromatic Plants of Tropical Central Africa. XLVIII, Comparative Study of the Essential oils of four Hyptis species from Cameroon: H.Lanceolata poit. H.pectinata (L) poit,H. spicigera Lam. And H. suaveolens poit. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 20, 3, pp. 340-343
Tongnuachan, P. & Benjakul, S. (2014) Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation. Journal of Food Science. 79, 7, pp. 231-1249.
Verboom W. C. & Brunt M.A. (1970). An ecological survey of western Provins, Zanbia with special reference to Fodder. Tolworth U.K. Pp: 156.
Yukuyoshi, T., Masazumi, M. & Masaji, Y. (2012). Application of saponin containing plants in foods and cosmetics. Intech. Pp 86-101.
Yusuf, M., Haque, N., Begum, J. & Chowdhury, J. U. (2009). Medicinal plant of Bangladesh BCSIR laboratories Chittagong. 4220, pp. 481-482.
Copyright (c) 2010 The Journal and the author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.