The Redox Reaction between Di-μ-Oxo-Tetrakis (2, 2’- bipyridine) – Dimanganese (III, IV) Perchlorate and 1, 3-Dihydroxybenzene in Hydrochloric Acid


  • Patricia Ese Umoru Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
  • Ameh David Onu Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria


Redox reaction, 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, di-μ-oxo-tetrakis (2, 2’- bipyridine) – dimanganese (III, IV) perchlorate.


Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 6(1): 738-745

Authors: Patricia Ese Umoru*and Ameh David Onu

Received 10 October 020/Accepted 24 October 2020

The redox reaction between di-μ-oxo-tetrakis (2, 2’- bipyridine) – dimanganese (III, IV) perchlorate 3+ and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene ( Q) in hydrochloric acid was investigated using spectroscopic technique. The stoichiometry of the reaction was 2:3 for 3+: Q. The rate of reaction was first order with respect to both species while the overall rate of reaction was second order. Investigation of the effect of ionic strength on the reaction gave evident for non-dependence of the rate of reaction on change in dielectric constant, D, of the medium. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in the concentration of the acid and was found to be unaffected by the addition of added (Ni2+, NO3- and HCOO-) ions. There was no gel-formation in the course of the reaction and Michaelis-Menten’s type plot gave a straight line starting from the origin.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Patricia Ese Umoru, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Ameh David Onu, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry


Banerjee, R., Mondal, B. & Kundu, S., (1997). Kinetics of oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by di-oxo-bridged manganese (iii, iv) complexes of (2, 2’ bipyridine and 1, 10-phenanthroline). journal of chemical society of dalton transaction 22, pp. 4341–4344.

Chaudhuri, S., Mukhopadhyay, & Banerjee, R., Solution Equilibria & Redox Reactivities of dioxo-brigded Manganese Complex (1995). Journal of Chemical Society of Dalton Transaction, 4, pp. 503 - 699.

Eddy, N. O & Udoh, C. L. (2006). Introduction to environmental chemistry, Pstom Press, Nigeria.

Ekop, A. S. & Eddy, N. O. (2009). Adsorption of Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solution by Helix aspera shell. E. Journal of Chemistry, 6, 4, pp. 1-6.

Gates, K. S. (1999). DNA and aspects of molecular biology. In Comprehensive natural product chemistry. Edited by Barton, D., Nakanishi, K and Methcohn, O. Elservier, Netherlands.

Ghosh, D. Shukla, A.D. R. Banerjee & Das, A (2002).Kinetics of oxidation of ascorbic acid and 1,4-dihydroxybenzene by semiquinone radical bound to ruthenium(ii), Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, 24:4527- 4754.

Innocenti, A., Hilvo, M., Scozzafava, A., Parkkila, S., Supuran, C. T. (2008). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Inhibition of the new membrane-associated isoform XV with phenols. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 18, 12, pp. 3593-3596.

Innocenti, A., Vullo, D., Scozzafava, A. & Supuran, C. T. (2008). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of mammalian isoforms I-XIV with a series of substituted phenols including paracetamol and salicylic acid. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 16, 15, pp. 17424-7428.

Iyun, J. F. (1999). Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of 1,3-dihydroxybenzene by trioxiodate (V) ion in aqueous perchloric acid medium. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 38A, pp. 180-182.

Iyun J.F & Ukoha P.O (1999). Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of 1, 3-dihydroxybenzene by trioxoiodate (V) ion in aqueous perchloric acid medium. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 38:180-182.

Iyun J F, Musa K Y & Ayoko G A (1996). Science in New Guinea, 22(I):10.

Loginova, N.V., Polozov, G. I., Koval’chuk, T.V., Osipovich, N. P., Yaroslav, V. F. , Anna, T., Ryma, Z. & Shadyro, O. I. (2012). Pharmacological activity of benzene derivatives: sterically hindered 1, 2-dihydroxybenzene and o-aminophenol derivatives: synthesis, complexation with biometals and biological evaluation. In: Benzene and its Derivatives: New Uses and Impacts on Environment and Human Health, Edited by Tranto, G., Nova Sciences Publishers, Inc.

Lohdip, Y.N. & Iyun, J.F. (2002). The kinetics of oxidation of thiocyanate ion by di-m-oxo tetrakis (1,10-phenanthroline) dimanganese (III,IV) perchlorate in acid medium. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 9(1): 105-112.

Lohdip, Y.N. & Iyun, J.F. (2003). Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Thiocyanate Ion by Di-u-oxo-tetrakis (1, 10-Phenanthroline) – Dimanganese (III, IV) ion in Acid Medium, GlobalJournal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 9:105.

Lynch B. S., Delzell E. S., & Bechtel D. H. (2002). Toxicology review and risk assessment of Resorcinol: Thyroid effects. Regulation, Toxicology and Pharmacology, 36, pp. 198–210.

Mentasti, E., PelizzettiE., Pramauro, E. & Giraudi, G. (1975). Redox reaction of 1, 2-dihydroxybenzene with Mn(III) in aqueous perchlorate media. kinetics and mechanism. Inorganica Chimica Acta 12(1):61-65.

McBride, M. B. (1989). Oxidation of 1, 2 and 1.4-dihydroxybenzene by brrnessite in acidic aqueous suspension. Clays and Clay Minerals. 37, 5, pp. 479-486.

Mohammed Y., Sulaiman, I & Onu D. (2017). Kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of diaquotetrakis (2,2′-bipyridine)-µ-oxodiruthenium(III) ion by hypophosphorous acid in acidic medium.Transition Metal Chemistry, 42(18).

Najafpour, M.M. & Moghaddam, A.N. (2012). Nano-sized manganese oxide: A proposed catalyst for water oxidation in the reaction of some manganese complexes and cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate. Journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry, Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Dalton Transactions, Pp: 1-19.

Ngamchuea, K., Tharat, B., Hirunsit, P. & Suthirakun, S. (2020). Electrochemical oxidation of resorcinol: mechanistic insights from experimental and computational studies. RSC advances, 10, pp. 28454–28463.

Odoemelam, S. A. & Eddy, N. O. (2009). Studies on the use of oyster, snail and periwinkle shells as adsorbents for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution. E. Journal of Chemistry, 6, 1, pp. 213-222.

Sidera K, & Patsavoudi E. (2014) HSP90 inhibitors: Current Development and Potential in Cancer Therapy. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discovery, 9, pp. 1-20.

Schmiedel, K.W & Decker, D. (2012). Resorcinol".Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.

Vinyard, D. J., Ananyev, G. M., & Dismukes, G. C. (2013). Photosystem II: The reaction center of oxygenic photosynthesis. Annual. Review in Biochemistry, 82, pp. 577-606.