Sensory and market attributes of wheat-Musa. spp-soybean (WPS) flour composite bread


  • K. G. Ta'awu Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
  • M. C. Ekanem Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • *P. G. Udofia Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • A. Mairo Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


Composite bread, sensory evaluation, bread quality, mixture experimental design


Communication In Physical Sciences 2020, 5(2): 136-144

Authors: K. G. Ta’awu, M. C. Ekanem, *P. G. Udofia, & A. Mairo 

Received 16 March 2018/Accepted 20 April 2020

In order to search for local raw materials that could meet the formulation of affordable, nutritious and functional bread that can compete or perform better than the 100% wheat flour, we conducted a study with, composite bread samples baked with blends of
wheat, soybeans and plantain flours. The composite flours were formulated using the augmented Simplex Lattice {3,3} design of the response surface methodology (RSM). Fourteen (14) samples from the respective blends were produced using standard method. The bread samples were subjected to sensory evaluation, using the semi-trained panelist of 20 members consisting of 10 male and 10 female, who were familiar with bread quality. The results indicated that the sensory attributes of the 100% wheat (standard) bread, the minimally supplemented bread samples scored higher values of the sensory parameters including shelf stability. Models of the parameters of the bread samples were not significant (p>0.05), but their response surface plots and calculated mathematical models indicated some levels of influence by the components. Optimization analysis of the sensory evaluation and shelf-stability data revealed that 0.590, 0.220, 0.195 proportions of wheat, Musa spp. and soybean flours
produced 7.163, 6.835, 6.653, 5.737, 5.301, 8.184, for taste, colour, texture, aroma, acceptability and preference respectively at
100% desireability level. Acceptability and preference of the samples exhibited similar trends with the taste, colour, aroma, and
texture. The bread quality parameters were observed to be function of the proportions of the flour components in the samples. The mean mold-free day of the samples was 4.0, the highest hedonic value and shelf-stability were observed in the sample that had high substitution of wheat.


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Author Biographies

K. G. Ta'awu , Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Department of Food Science and Technology

M. C. Ekanem, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Food Technology,

A. Mairo, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Department of Food and Technology,


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