Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Balanites Aegyptiaca Root Bark Extracts: Influence of solvent

Main Article Content

A. Usman
Y. Mohammed
H. O. Muhammed
A. H. Zakari

Abstract

Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(2):156-164


Author: A. Usman, Y. Mohammed, H. O. Muhammed, N. L. Usman and A. H. Zakari


Received 24 April 2020/Accepted xx xx xxxx 2020


Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in Africa’s folk medicines to treat wide range of diseases. Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del root indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols.The ethanolic extract of the plant root had in addition carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside and steroids while n-hexane extract indicated the presence of anthraquinone, carbohydrates, cardiac glycoside, terpenoids and resins. The extracts were also evaluated for their free radical scavenging potential, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the total phenolic content was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the total flavonoid content was assessed by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results obtained revealed that the ethanolic extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity in the range of 55.23±0.4 to 81.04±0.9% while concentrations in the aqueous extract ranged from 20.15±0.2 to 35.11±0.2% compared to 80 % of standard ascorbic acids. Estimated total phenolic content in aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 179.48±1.99 and 260.07±2.31 mg/gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g respectively. However, the total flavonoid content for aquoues and ethanolic extracts were 69.17±0.32 and 95.52±0.41 mg/ quercetin equivalent (QE)/g respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid were absent in normal hexane extract. The results obtained from the study indicated that the choice of solvent can influence the components that can be extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del root and that for optimum extracts to be obtained, the best solvent is ethanol.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biographies

A. Usman , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry,

Y. Mohammed , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry

H. O. Muhammed , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

Department of Science

A. H. Zakari , Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria

Department of Science Laboratory Technology

References

Agati, G., Azzarello, E., Pollastri, S. & Tattini, M. (2012). Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: location and functional significance, Plant Science, 196, pp. 67–76.

Ali, B. H., Bashir, A. K. & Rasheed, R. A. (2001). Effect of the traditional medicinal plants Rhazya stricta, Balanitis aegyptiaca and Haplophylum tuberculatum on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Phytotherapy Research, 15, pp. 598-603.

Al-Thobaiti, A. S. & Abu Zeid, M. I. (2018). Phytochemistry and pharmaceutical evaluation of Balanites aegyptiaca: An Overview. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 6, 3, pp. 453 – 465.

Amorati, R. & Valgimigli, L. (2015). Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants. Free Radical. Research, 49, 5, pp. 633–649.

Baba, A. S. & Malik, A. S. (2015). Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii Blume. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 9, pp. 449–454.

Babayi, H., Kolo, I., Okogun, J. I. & Ijah, U. J (2004). The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms. Biokemistri, 16, 2, pp. 106-111.

Bashir, A. K., Ahmed, G. H .M., Suliman, S. M. & ElKheir, Y. M. (1984). Molluscicidal and other biological activities of B. aegyptiaca. Cairo, Egypt: The first Arab conference on medicinal plants, pp. 123-131.

Chapagain, B. & Wiesman, Z. (2005). Larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (desert date) against the larvae of Culex pipiens mosquitoes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, pp. 1351-1354.

Chapagain, B. P., Wiesman, Z., Tsror, L. (2007). In vitro study of the antifungal activity of saponin-rich extracts against prevalent phytopathogenic fungi. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicines, 4, pp. 1-6.

Chothani, D. L. & Vaghasiya, H. U. (2011). A Review on Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del (desert date): Phytochemical constituents, traditional

uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy Review, 5, 9, pp. 55-62.

Chua, L. S., Lau, C. H., Chew, C. Y. & Dawood, D. A. S. (2019). Solvent fractionation and acetone precipitation for crude saponins from Eurycoma longifolia extract. Molecules, 24, 1416; doi:10.3390/molecules24071416.

Doughari, J .H., Pukuma, M. S. & De, N. (2007). Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Del. and Morianga oleifera Lam. On Salmonella typhi. African Journal of Biotechnology,., 6, pp. 2212-2215.

Doughari, J. H., El Mahmud, A. M. & Manzara, S. (2007). Studies on the antibacterial activities of root extract of Carica papaya L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, pp. 037-041.

Eddy, N. O. & Ekop, A. S. (2005). Comparative studies of the level of toxicant in the seeds of Terminalia catappa(Indian almond) and Coula edulis (African walnut). CHEMCLASS Journal, 2, pp. 74-76.

Ameh, P. O., Odiongenyi, A. O. & Eddy, N. O. (2012). Joint effect of Anogessius leocarpus gum (AL gum) exudate and halide ions on the corrosion of mild steel in 0.1 M HCl. Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta, 30, 4, pp. 235245.

Eddy, N. O., Ekwumengbo, P. A. & Mamza, P. A. P. (2009). Ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa as a green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4. Green Chemistry Letters and Review, 2, 4, pp. 223-231.

Eddy, N. O., Ita, B. I., Dodo, S. N. & Paul, E. D. (2011). Inhibitive and adsorption properties of ethanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.1 M HCl. Green Chemistry Letters and Review, 5, 1, pp. :43-53.

Elfeel, A. A. (2017). Changes in vapor pressure deficit and air-to-leaf temperature difference due to the effects of watering frequency and seasonal variation induced adaptive responses in Balanites aegyptiaca. Current Science, 112, 6, pp. 1176-1182.

Gaur, K., Nema, R. K., Kori, M. L., Sharma, C. S., Singh, V. (2008). Antiinflammatory activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animals models. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2, pp. 214-217.

Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y. and Ebrahimzadeh, M. (2009). Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22, 1, pp. 277-281.

Gnoula, C., Mégalizzi, V. & De, N. (2008). Balanitin-6 and -7: Diosgenyl saponins isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca Del. display significant anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. International Journal of Oncology, 32, pp. 5-15.

Gour, V. S. & Kant, T. (2012). Balanites aegyptiaca (L) 23. Chapagain, B.P. and Z. Wiesman, 2007. Determination Del: a multipurpose and potential biodiesel tree species of the arid regions. International Journal of Science and Nature, 3, pp. 472-475.

Hall, J. B. (1992). Ecology of a key African multipurpose tree species. Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Balanitaceae): The state of knowledge. Forest Ecology and Management, 50, pp. 1-30.

Hameister, D. & Kragl, U. (2006) Selective Recovery of Carbohydrates from Aqueous Solution Facilitated by a Carrier. Engineering of Life Sciences 6, pp. 2187-192. Ignat, I., Volf, I. & Popa, V. I. (2011). A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry, 126, pp. 1821–1835.

Iloki-Assanga, S. B., Lewis-Luján, L.M. & LaraEspinoza, C. L. (2015). Solvent effects on phytochemical constituent profiles and antioxidant activities, using four different extraction formulations for analysis of Bucida buceras L. and Phoradendron californicum . BMC Research Notes, 8, pp. 396 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1388-1

Kamal, M. S., Ohtani, K., Kurokawa, T., Assaf, M. H., Shanawany, M. A., Ali, A. A., et al. (1991). Studies on B.aegyptaica fruits an ant diabetic Egyptian folk medicine. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, (Tokyo), 39, pp. 1229-1233.

Kamel, M. S., Ohtani, K., Kurokawa, T, Assaf, H. M, El-Shanawany, A. M., Ali, A. A., Kasai, A., Ishibashi, S. R. & Tanaka, O. (1991). Studies on Balanites aegyptiaca fruits, an antidiabetic Egyptian folk medicine. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 39, pp. 1229-1233.

Kannamba, B., Winnie, T. D., Surekha, M. & Lavanya, B. (2017). Effect of extraction methods and solvent on phytochemical composition of medicinal plant extracts. Der Pharma Chemica, 9, 9, pp. 152-156

Khettaf, A., Belloula, N., Dridi, S. (2016). Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some wild medicinal plants in southeastern Algeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 15, pp. 524–530

Koko, W.S., Abdalla, H.S., Galal, M. & Khalid, H.S. (2005). Evaluation of oral therapy on Mansonial Schistosomiasis using single dose of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and praziquantel. Fitoterapia., 76, pp. 30-34.

Koko, W.S., Galal, M. & Khalid, H.S. (2000). Fasciolicidal efficacy of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 71, pp. 247-52.

Koleva, I. I., Van Beek, T. A., Linssen, J. P. H., de Groot, A. & Evstatieva, L. N. (2002). Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochememical Analysis. 1, pp. 8-17.

Maregesi, S. M., Pieters, L., Ngassapa, O. D., Apers, S., Vingerhoets, R., Cos, P., et al. (2008). Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants from Bunda district for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119, pp. 58-66.

Masoko, P., Mmushi, T. J., Mogashoa, M. M., Mokgotho, M. P., Mampuru, L. J. & Howard, R. L. (2008). In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea extracts against pathogenic yeasts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 20, pp. 3521-3526.

Mostefa, L., Zaabat, N, Ayad. R., Makhloufi, E., Djarri, L., Benahmed, M., Laouer, H., Nieto, G., & Akkal, S. (2018). In Vitro Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Antioxidant and Photoprotective Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Aerial Parts of Capnophyllum peregrinum (L.) Lange (Apiaceae) Growing in Algeria. Medicines, 5, 26, doi:10.3390/medicines5020026.

Odebiyi A. & Sofowora, A. E. (1999). Pytochemical screenings of Nigerian medicinal plants part 11. Lyodia. 44, pp. 234-246.

Ojo, O. O., Nadro, M .S. & Tella, I .O. (2006). Protection of rats by extracts of some common Nigerian trees against Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, pp. 755-760.

Okia, C. A., Agea, G. J, Kimondo, M. J., Abohassan, A. A. R., Okiror, P., Obua, J. & Teklehaimanot, Z. (2011). Use and management of Balanites aegyptiaca in drylands of Uganda. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 6, 1, pp. 15-24.

Ordonez, A., Gomez, J., Vattuone, M. and Isla, M. (2006). Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule swart extracts. Food Chemistry, 97, pp. 452458.

Otieno, J. N., Hosea, K. M. & Lyaruu, H. V. (2007). The effect of local minerals Kadsaro towards the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants extract. Case of Lake Victoria Basen, Tarim Tanzania. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicines, 4, pp. 1-6.

Parekh, J. & Chanda, S. (2007). In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae. African Journal of Microbiologica Research, 1, pp. 92-99.

Patil, S.V., Salunke, K.B, Patil, D.C., Salunkhe, B.R, Gavit, B. & Maheshwari, L.V. (2010). Potential of extracts of the tropical plant Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del. (Balanitaceae) to control the mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection., 29, pp. 1293-1296.

Pawar, S. S. & Dasgupta, D. (2018). Quantification of phenolic content from stem-bark and Piazzon, A., Vrhovsek, U., Masuero, D., Mattivi, F., Mandoj, F. & Nardini, M. (2012). Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and their metabolites: synthesis and antioxidant properties of the sulfate derivatives of ferulic and caffeic acids and of the acyl glucuronide of root of Hugonia mystax Linn. using RP-HPLC. Journal of King Saud University of Science , 30, pp. 293–300.

Sands, M. J. S. (2013). Flora of tropical East Africa: Balanitaceae. In: Beentje H.J. (ed.) and Ghazanfar S.A. (subed.), Flora of tropical East Africa, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 1- 17.

See, I., Ee, G, C. L., Mah, S. H., Jong, V. Y. M. & The, S. S. (2017). Effect of solvents on phytochemical concentrations and antioxidant activity of Garcinia benthamiana Stem bark extracys. Journal of Herbs, Spices amd Medicinal Plants, 23, 2, Pp. 117-127.

Soobrattee, A. M., Neergheen, S. V, LuximonRamma, O., Aruoma, I. O. & Bahorun, T.O. (2005). Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 579, pp. 200– 213.

Speroni. E., Cervellati, R., Innocenti, G., Costa, S., Guerra, M.C., Dall, S., et al. (2005). Antiinflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 98, pp. 117125.

Thouri, A., Chahdoura, H., El Arem, A., Hichri, A. M., Hassin, R. B. & Achour, L. (2017). Effect of solvents extraction on phytochemical components and biological activities of Tunisia date seed (var. Korkobbi and Arechti). BMC Complementary Medicine , 17, pp. 248. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1751-y

Truong, D., Nguyen, D. H., Ta, N. T. A., Bui, A. X., Do, T. H. & Nguyen, H. C. (2019). Evaluation of the use of different solvents for phytochemical constituents, antioxidants and In vitro anti-inflamatory activities of Severina buxifora. Journal of Food Quality, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8178294

Uwah, A. F., Otitoju, O., Ndem, J. I. & Peter, A. I. (2013). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of adventitious root sap of Musanga cecropioides. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 5, 2, pp. 13-16.

Wiesman, Z. & Chapagain, B. P. (2003). Laboratory evaluation of natural aponins as bioactive agents against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Dengue Bulletin, 27, pp. 168-173.

Yadav, P.J. & M. Panghal, M. (2010). Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hingot): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 3, 140-146.

Yinusa, I., Adeiza, H. A. & Balkees, W. A. (2016), Phytochemical, proximate and antimicrobial analysis of the fruit of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith Bruce). Lapai Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, 1, 2, pp. 38-46.

Zaahkouk, S. A. & Rashid, S. Z. (2003). Mattar AF. Ant diabetic properties of water and ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits flesh in senile diabetic rats. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 10, pp. 90-108.

Zarroug, I. M., Nugud, A. D., Basir, A. K. & Mageed, A. A. (1990). Balanites aegyptiaca as a mosquito larvicides. International Journal of Crude Drug Research, 28, pp. 267-271.