Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Balanites Aegyptiaca Root Bark Extracts: Influence of solvent


  • A. Usman Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.
  • Y. Mohammed Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.
  • H. O. Muhammed Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria
  • A. H. Zakari Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria


Extractio, phytochemicals, antioxidant activit, Balanites aegyptiaca root, effect of solven


Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(2):156-164

Author: A. Usman, Y. Mohammed, H. O. Muhammed, N. L. Usman and A. H. Zakari

Received 24 April 2020/Accepted xx xx xxxx 2020

Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del is a medicinal plant used in Africa’s folk medicines to treat wide range of diseases. Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del root indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols.The ethanolic extract of the plant root had in addition carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside and steroids while n-hexane extract indicated the presence of anthraquinone, carbohydrates, cardiac glycoside, terpenoids and resins. The extracts were also evaluated for their free radical scavenging potential, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the total phenolic content was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the total flavonoid content was assessed by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results obtained revealed that the ethanolic extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity in the range of 55.23±0.4 to 81.04±0.9% while concentrations in the aqueous extract ranged from 20.15±0.2 to 35.11±0.2% compared to 80 % of standard ascorbic acids. Estimated total phenolic content in aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 179.48±1.99 and 260.07±2.31 mg/gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g respectively. However, the total flavonoid content for aquoues and ethanolic extracts were 69.17±0.32 and 95.52±0.41 mg/ quercetin equivalent (QE)/g respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid were absent in normal hexane extract. The results obtained from the study indicated that the choice of solvent can influence the components that can be extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del root and that for optimum extracts to be obtained, the best solvent is ethanol.


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Author Biographies

A. Usman , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry,

Y. Mohammed , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry

H. O. Muhammed , Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

Department of Science

A. H. Zakari , Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria

Department of Science Laboratory Technology


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