Petrography and Geochemical Studies of Eyingba Lead-zinc Mineralization, Lower Benue Trough


  • Emmanuel U. Nwazue University of Ibadan Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
  • Chinedu U. Ibe University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria


Benue trough, petrography, geochemical studies, lead-zinc mineralization


Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(3): 315-324

Authors: Emmanuel U.  Nwazue, Anthony T. Bolarinwa and Chinedu U. Ibe

Received 29 May 2020/Accepted 20 June 2020

The geochemical studies of the Enyingba lead-zinc mineralization in the Lower Benue Trough was carried out to unravel the elemental association of the mineralization along with the gangue minerals and to further define the provenance of the mineralization. The petrographic studies of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, siderite was carried out with Carborundum grit of 90, 120, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and magnesium oxide (MgO) to ensure smoothening of samples on a polishing machine. The geochemical result obtained indicated the enrichments of Pb (400000ppm) in galena, Zn (200000ppm) in sphalerite, Cu (100000ppm) for chalcopyrite. Chondrite normalization for galena/barite/siderite plots reveals positive Eu and Tm anomalies in galena, with a gentle slope depletion from the LREEs to HREEs. Chalcopyrite/sphalerite normalization plots also indicated a positive spike for Eu and Tm which imply that they are co-genetic. The concentrations of these elements in their ores reveal their abundance, high grade and could be exploited in large scale. Exsolution blebs from polished section also emphasize paragenetic relationship. The positive anomalies observed on the chondrite plots are due to hydrothermal fluid inputs in the mineralization since REEs are believed to be the least soluble and relatively immobile during weathering and hydrothermal alterations.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Emmanuel U. Nwazue, University of Ibadan Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Department of Geology

Chinedu U. Ibe, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria

Department of Geology


Akande S.O. & Abimbola A. E., (1987). Aspect of the genesis of lead-zinc-fluorite-barite mineralization in the Nigeria Benue Trough. In: Matheis G., Schamelimier H. (Eds) Current research in African Earth Sciences. Balkema press, pp 365-369.

Akande, S.O, Mucke, A. & Umeji, A.C. (1990). A mineralogical, textural and paragenetic study of the lead-zinc copper ores in the Lower

Benue Trough and their genetic implications. Journal of Mining Geology,26, 2, pp 127-165.

Boyton, W.V., (1984). Geochemistry of rare earth elements: meteorite studies. In: Henderson P. (ed.), Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier, pp 63-114.

Brown, E. H., Babcork, R. S. & Clark, M. D. (1979). Geology of Precambrian Rock of Grand Canyon Resources, Press Publishers, London. pp219.

Ezepue, M. C. (984) The geologic setting of lead zinc deposits at Ishiagu, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 2, 2, pp. 97-101.

Farrington, J. I. (1952). A preliminary description of the Nigerian lead-zinc field. Economic. Geology, 17, pp 583-608.

Fatoye, F. B., Ibitomi, M. A., & Omada, J. I. ( ). Lead-zinc mineralization in thr Benue trough, Nigeria. Their geology, occurences and economic prospective. Advances in Applied Science Research, 5, 2, pp. 86-92.

Garrels, R.M., & Mckenzie, F.F., (1971), Evolution of Sedimentary Rock, WM Norton and Co, New York. p.394.

Gulcan, B. and Ahmet, G. (2004). Trace and rare earth element geochemistry of the Karalar (Gazipasa-Antalya) Barite-Galena Deposit, Southern Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 13, pp 63-76.

Hugh, R.R. (1993). Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data (R.R. Hugh Edt), second edition, England. Pp.133-142.

Ibe, C.U and Obiora, S.C. 2019. Geochemical characterization of Granitoids in Katchuan areas, southeastern Nigeria: Further evidence for peraluminous and shoshonitic compositions and postcollisional setting of Granitic rocks in the Nigerian Basement complex. Acta Geochimica. 38(5), 734-793

Middlemost, E.A.K (1975). The Basalt Clan, Earth-science reviews, 11, pp 337-564.

Nnabo, P. N. (2105). Heavy Metal Distribution and Contamination in Soils around Enyigba Pb-Zn Mines District, South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 5, 16, pp. 38-53.

Nwachukwu, S.O. (1972). The tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Benue Trough, Nigeria. Geological magazine, 109, pp 411-419.

Obarezi, J. E., & Nwosu, J.I. (2013). Structural controls of Pb-Zn mineralization of Enyigba district, Abakaliki, south eastern Nigeria. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 5, 11, pp 250-261.

Olade, M. A., Morton, R. D. (1985). Origin of lead-zinc mineralization in the southern Benue Trough, Nigeria: Fluid inclusion and trace element studies. Mineral. Deposita, 20, pp, 76–80.

Olade, M. A. (1975). Evolution of Nigeria’s Benue Trough (Aulacogen). A tectonic model. Geological Magazine., 112, pp 575- 1982.

Olade, M. A. (1976). On genesis of lead-zinc deposits in Nigerian’s Benue Rift (Aulalgen) a reinterpretation, Journal of Mining and Geology, 13, pp 20 -27.

Orajaka, S. (1965). The Geology of Enyigba. Ameri and Ameka lead-zinc lodes Abakaliki Eastern Nigeria. A reconnaissance. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2, pp 65-69.

Orazulike, D.M. (1994). The mineralogy and textures of lead-zinc copper ores of Enyigba lode. Abakaliki, Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal. of Mining and Geololgy. 30, pp 25-32.

Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspect of Geology of Nigeria. Ibadan university press; pp. 145.

Schneider, H .J., Ozgur, N. & Palacios. C. M. (1988). Relationship between alteration, rare earth element distribution, and mineralization of the Murgul copper deposit, Northeastern Turkey. Society of Geology Applied to Mineral deposits, publication 6, pp 22-24.