Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Calotropis Procera Stem Bark Extracts


  • Abdullahi Usman Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria
  • Ruth O. Onore Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria
  • Osebuohien A. Oforghor Nasarawa State University Keffi, Lafia Campus Nasarawa State, Nigeria
  • Jibrin Mohammed Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria
  • Nasiru L. Usman Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia


Calotropis procera, phytochemicals screening, total phenolic and flavonoids concentrations


Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(3): 233

Authors: Abdullahi Usman, Ruth O. Onore, Osebuohien A. Oforghor, Jibrin Mohammed, and Nasiru L. Usman

Received 19 May 2020/Accepted 29 May 2020

In continuation of the need to search for phytochemicals in parts of some rare and native plants of Nigeria origin. This study was designed to carry out phytochemical screening, antioxidant properties and determination of total phenolics and flavonoid contents in Calotropis procera Stem. The phytochemical screening of stem bark of C. procera using aqueous and methanol extracts revealed the presence of tannins, phenols and flavonoid. The aqueous extract was also found to contain saponins while methanol extract also has steroids. Steroids was the only metabolite present in hexane extract. The anti-oxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of aqueous and methanolic extracts of stem bark of C. procera were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride colorimetric assays. From the results obtained, the methanolic extract was observed to have demonstrated a significant concentration of phenolic (81.65±0.92 mg GAE/g), and flavonoid (46.08±0.71 mg RE/g) than the aqueous extract (66.07±0.43 mg GAE/g, 31.34±0.39 mg RE/g). The aqueous and methanol extracts showed maximum activities of 28.16±0.64% and 81.65±0.71% at 1 mg/ml respectively. However, the ascorbic acid exhibited 83.12±1.02% in the DPPH assay. The results of the present study, shows that both aqueous and methanolic extracts could serve as a valuable source of natural antioxidants.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Abdullahi Usman, Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Ruth O. Onore, Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Osebuohien A. Oforghor, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Lafia Campus Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Department of Home Science and Management

Jibrin Mohammed, Nasarawa State University Keffi-Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Nasiru L. Usman, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia

Department of Science Technology


Aletan, U. I (2018). Comparison of the Proximate and Mineral Composition of two Cowpea Varieties obtained from Mile 12 Market, Lagos. Communication in Physical Sciences, 3, 1, 43-48.

Altemimi, A., Lakhssassi, N., Baharlouei, A., Watson, D. G. & Lightfoot, D. A. (2017). Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts. Plants (Basel). 6, 4, 42. doi:10.3390/plants6040042

Amorati, R. & Valgimigli, L. (2015). Advantages and limitations of common testing methods for antioxidants. Free Radical. Research, 49, 5, pp. 633–649.

Attah, A. F., O’Brien, M., Koehbach, J., Sonibare, M. A., Moody, J. O., Smith, T. J., et al. (2012).Uterine contractility of plants used to

facilitate childbirth in Nigerian Eethnomedicine. Journal of Ethnophar-macology, 143, pp. 377‑382.

Baskaran, C., Ratha, V., Velu, S. & Kumaran, K. (2012). The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, pp. 658-662.

Eddy, N. O. & Ekop, A. S. (2005). Comparative studies of the level of toxicant in the seeds of Terminalia catappa(Indian almond) and Coulaedulis (African walnut). CHEMCLASS Journal, 2, pp. 14-76.

Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y. & Ebrahimzadeh, M. (2009). Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22, 1, pp. 277-281.

Gupta, R. Vairale, M. G., Deshmukh, R. R., Chsudhary, P. R & Wate, S, R. (2010). Ethnomedicinal uses of some plants used by Gond tribe of Bhandara district Maharashtra. India Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9 4, pp. 713-717.

Gutteridge, J. M. & Halliwell, B. (1993) Invited review free radicals in disease processes: a compilation of cause and consequence. Free radical Research Communications, 19, 3, pp. 141-158.

Hazafa, A., Rehman, K. U., Jahan, N, & Jabeen, Z. (2019). The role of polyphenol (flavonoids) compounds in the treatment of cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer, 72, 3, pp. 386-397

Idris, S., Ndukwe, G. & Gimba, C. E. (2009). Preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of persea Americana (avocado pear). Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2, 1, pp. 173-176.

Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, an Illustrated Dictionary. Ed. Springer Science, Springer Verlag; Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 207.

Koleva, I. I., Van Beek, T. A. & Linssen, J. P. H., de Groot, A. & Evstatieva, L. N. (2002). Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochememical Analysis, 1, pp. 8-17.

Kumar, S., Gupta, A. & Pandey, A. K. (2013). Calotropis procera root extract has the capability to combat free radical mediated damage. ISRN Pharmacology, doi: 10.11-55/2013/691372.

Lal, S. D., Kumar, P. and Pannu, D.S. (1985). Quercetin-3-rutinoside in Calotropis procera. Journal of Scientific Research, 7, 1, pp. 141-142.

Larhsini, M., Bousaid, M., Lazrek, H.B. and Jana, M. (1997). Evaluation of antifungal and molluscicidal properties of extracts of Calotropis procera. Fitotrapia, 68, pp. 371-373.

Makepeace, W., Dobson, E. T. & Scott, D. (1985). Interference phenomena due to mouse ear and king devil hawkweed. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 23, pp. 79-90.

Mako, G. A., Memon, A. H., Mughal, U. R., Pirzado, A. J. & Bhatti, S. A. (2012). Antibacterial effects of leaves and root extract of Calotropis procera Linn. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Science, 28, 2, pp. 141-149.

Mbinda, W. & Musangi, C. (2019). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of stem back and root methanolic extracts of Calotropis procera. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 8, 4, pp. 161-166.

Mirończuk-Chodakowska, I., Witkowska, M. A. & Zujko, E. M. (2018). Endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidants in the human body. Advances in Medical Sciences, 63, 1, pp. 68-78.

Morsy, T. A., Rahem, M. A. & Allam, K. A. (2001). Control of Musca domestica third instar larvae by the latex of Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepiadaceae). Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 33, pp. 107-

Odebiyi A. & Sofowora, A. E. (1999). Pytochemical screenings of Nigerian medicinal plants part 11. Lyodia. 44, pp. 234-246.

Okwu, D. E., & Josiah, C. (2006). Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Two Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Africa Journal of Biotechnology, 5, pp. 357-361.

Ordonez, A., Gomez, J., Vattuone, M. & Isla, M. (2006). Antioxidant Activities of Sechiumedule swart Extracts. Food Chemistry, 97, pp.


Orwa, C., Mutua, A., Kindt, R., Jamnadass, R. & Anthony, S. (2011). Agroforestree database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya Ecocrop, Ecocrop database. FAO.

Oudhia, P. & Tripathi, R. S. (1997). Proc. National Conference on Health Care and Development of Herbal Medicines. Raipur:

GAU, pp. 71‑78.

Phaniendra, A., Jestadi, D. B. & Periyasamy, L. (2015). Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various

diseases. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 30, 1, pp. 11-26.

Poojary, M. M., Vishnumurthy, K. A. & Adhikari, V. A. (2015). Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from

Mammea suriga. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 5, 3, pp. 182-189.

Quazi, S., Mathur, K. & Arora, S. (2013). Calotropis procera: An overview of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Indian

Journal of Drugs, 1, 2, pp. 63-69.

Rai, M. K., Pandey., A. K., Acharaya, D. (2012). Ethnomedicinal plants used by Gond tribe of Bahanalehi District Chhinwara, M.P. Journal

of Non‑Timber Forest, 7, pp. 237‑241.

Rajani, M. & Gupta, S. K. (2009). Anti-tumor Studies with Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. root employing Hep2 cells and

their possible mechanism of action. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 47, 5, pp. 343-348.

Ranab, A.C. & Kamatha, J.V. (2002). Preliminary study on antifertility activity of Calotropis procera roots in female rats.

Fitoterapia, 73, 1, pp. 111-115.

Saber, A. H., Maharan, G. H. & Rizkallah, M. M. (1969). Sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes of Calotropis procera. Bulletin of Faculty of

Pharmacy, Cairo University Journal, 7, 1, pp.91-104.

Silvania, V. M. M. (2005). Antinociceptive activity of Calotropis procera latex in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99, 1, pp. 125-

Umamaheswari, M. & Chatterjee, T. K. (2008). In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of Coccinia grandis L. leaf extract. African

journal of traditional, complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5, 1, pp. 61-73.

Upadhyay, K. R. (2014). Ethnomedicinal, pharmaceutical and pesticidal uses of Calotropis procera (Aiton) (Family: Asclepiadaceae). International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 1, pp. 135-146.

Verma, V. N. (2014). The chemical study of calotropis. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 1, pp. 74-90.

Vohra, R. (2004). Calotropis the medicinal weed. India: Online medicinal book store.

Yoganarasimhan, S. N. (2011). Medicinal Plants of India. Regional Research Institute (Ay.) Bangalore, Tamil Ayurvedic uses and

Pharmacological activities of Calotropis procera Linn. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 6, 2, pp. 97.

Zafar, I., Muhammad, L. & Abdul, J. (2005). Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.), flowers in sheep. Journal of

Ethnopharmacology, 102, 2, pp. 256-261.

Zhou, Y., Zheng, J., Li, Y., Xu, D. P., Li, S., Chen, Y. M. & Li, H. B. (2016). Natural polyphenols for prevention and treatment of

cancer. Nutrients, 22, 8, 515, doi: 10.3390/nu8080515.