Heavy Metals Pollution in Surface Water and Sediment of Lower Cross River System in Akwa Ibom State, igeria.

Main Article Content

S. A. Odoemelam
A. M. Udongwo

Abstract

Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(2): 117-123


Authors: S.A. Odoemelam, A.M. Udongwo and I. A. Okoro


Received 05 March 2020/Accepted 20 April 2020


This study analyzed some heavy metals in surface water and sediment from Cross River system in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Water and sediment samples were collected from Ibaka, Oron, Nwaniba, Ayadehe, Okopedi and Enwang and analyzed for the concentration of some heavy metal ions using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained from the analysis indicated that mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Se and Ni in surface water were 13.69±8.97, 20.53±10.60, 18±11.47, 25.81±13.91, 26.9±11.0 1.18±0.32 and 32.67±26.16 g while the corresponding mean concentrations in the sediments were 0.52±0.24, 57.78±15.60, 16.22±5.48, 7.52±2.28, 69.81±16.90, 0.75±0.44 and 6.87±2.26 g/g, respectively. The results of surface water and sediment quality were compared with some guidelines which revealed no serious contamination risk to man and aquatic organism for surface water and some degree of contamination at some stations for the metals under study in sediment samples

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biographies

S. A. Odoemelam , Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

A. M. Udongwo , Akwa Ibom State College of ducation Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

References

Adeyemo, O. K., Adedokun, O. A., usuf, R. K. Adeleye, . A. (2008). Seasonal changes in physiochemical parameters and nutrient load of river sediments in Ibadan city, Nigeria. Global Nest Journal, 10, 3, pp. 326-336.

Akpan, I. O. Thompson, . A. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal contamination of sediment along the Cross-River Channel in Cross River State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 2, 5, pp. 20-30.

Ali, M. M., Ali, M. L., Islam, M. S. Rahman, M. Z. (2016). Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water and sediment of Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Environmental nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management, 5, pp, 27-35.

Ayotunde, . O., Offem, B. O. Ada, F. B. (2011). Heavy metal profile of water, sediment and freshwater cat fish, Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus (Siluriformes: Bagridae) of Cross River, Nigeria. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 60, 3, pp. 12891301.

Ayotunde, . O., Offem, B. O. Ada, F. B. (2011). Heavy metal profile of Cross Rive: Cross River State, Nigeria: Using bioindicators. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 45, 4, pp. 232-246.

Campbell, P. G. C., Lewis, A. G., Chapman, P. M., Crowder, A. A., Fletcher, W. K., Imber, B. Luoma, S. N., Stokes, P. M. Winfrey, M. (1988). Biologically available metals in sediments. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, Canada Publication, 27694pp. Cheggour, M., Chafik, A., Fisher, N. S. Benbrahim, S. (2005). Metal concentration in sediments and claims in four Moroccan estuaries. Marine Environmental Research, 59, pp.119137.

Di Toro, D. M., Mahony, J. D., Hansen, D. J., Scott, K. J., Hicks, M. B., Mayr, S. M. Redmond, M. S. (1990). Toxicity of cadmium in sediments: the role of acid volatile sulphide. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 9, pp. 1487-1502.

Eddy, N. O. Ukpong, U. I. (2005). Heavy metals concentration in Upper Calabar River Sediment, South astern Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 4, 1, pp. 38-43. spinoza, F. R, Quinones, C. . Zacarkimo,S. M 2005; Removal of heavy metal from polluted river water using aquatic macrophytes salving SP Brazilian Journal of Physics, ,35, pp.744746.

Forstner, U. Wittman, G. T. W. (1983). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 486, pp.

Gao, . Chen, C. A. (2012). Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay. Water Research, 46, 6, pp. 19011911,

Islam, M. S., Ahmed, M. K., Raknuzzaman, M., Habibullah, M., Al Mamum, M. H. Islam, M. K. (2015). Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: A preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecological Indicator, 48, 282-291. Islam, M. S., Ahmed, M. K., Habibullah-AlMamun, M. Masunaga, S. (2015). Assessment of trace metals in fish species of urban rivers in Bangladesh and health implications. nvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 39, Issue 1, pp. 347-357

Kane, S., Lazo, P Vlora, A. (2012). Assessment of heavy metals in some dumps of copper mining and plants in Mirdita Area, Albania in proceedings of the 5th international scientific conference on water, climate, and nvironment, dited by Ohrid Macedona Luoma, S. N. (1989). Can we determine the biological availability of sediment-bound trace elements Hydrobiologia, 176/177, pp. 379-396.

McCready, S., Birch, G. F. Long, . R. (2006). Metallic and organic contaminants in sediments of Sydney Harbor, Australia and vicinity A chemical dataset for evaluating sediment quality guidelines. Environment International, 32, pp.455-465.

Osu, C. I. Odoemelam, S. A. (2015). Availability of toxic metals and its transfer from soil to some selected edible vegetables consumed in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, 5, 1, pp. 1-4. Prabu, P.C 2009. Impact of heavy metals contamination of Alkali river of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops. electronic journal of Environmental Agriculture and Food chemistry,.8, pp. 818-827.

Salomons, W., Forstner, U. Mader, P. (1995). Heavy Metals: Problems and Solutions. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag Simpson, C. D., Mosi, A. A., Cullen, W. R. Reimer, K. J. (1996). Composition and distribution polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in superficial marine sediments from Kitimat Harbour, Canada. Science of Total Environment, 181, pp. 265-278.

Sundaray, S. K., Nayak, B. B., Lin, S. Bhatta, D. (2011). Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sedimentsA case study: Mahanadi basin, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, pp. 2-3, pp. 1837-1846

Varol, M. Sen, B. (2012). Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey. CATENA, 92, pp. 1-10

Varol, M. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Tigris River (Turkey) using pollution indices and multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, pp. 355-364