Nutritional Assessment of Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis Seeds
Keywords:Black pea, nutritional value, functional and elemental composition, amino acid profile
Communication in Physical Sciences 2020, 5(4): 446-454
Received 12 June 2020/Accepted 27 July 2020
In order to access the nutritional value of Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis seeds, samples of the seeds were analysed for proximate, elemental, antinutritional factor and amino acid profile were determined using recommended methods. The results obtained for proximate parameters were: %moisture content (7.40± 0.70); ash content (5.11±0.16), % crude fat (1.77± 0.03); % crude fibre (0.72±0.01), % crude protein (14.95±0.14), % crude carbohydrate (70.05±0.14) and the calorific value (355.93±0.03kcal/100g). The anti-nutritional factors had the following mean values: saponins (1.73±0.01 %), tannins (1.51±0.01 %), flavonoids (1.28±0.03 %), oxalates (0.10±0.00 %), and alkaloids (0.36±0.00 %). The functional properties were bulk density (0.89±0.03 g/cm3), emulsification capacity (56.40 ± 1.43 %), oil adsorption capacity (1.74±0.06 %), water adsorption capacity (3.17±0.92 %), foaming capacity (30.00±0.83 %). and foaming stability (18.00±0.81 %). The selected macro elemental composition of the sample were in the order: magnesium < sodium < calcium < phosphorus < potassium (2.60±0.28, 3.85±0.30, 5.15±0.55, 10.00±1.63 and 24.15±1.15) respectively and the selected micro elemental composition in sample were in the order: copper < zinc < manganese < iron (1.20±0.16, 3.10±0.26, 5.20±0.33 and 5.75±0.59) respectively. The amino acid profile indicated that glutamic acid had the highest value (13.55 g/100g), while cysteine was the lowest (0.78 g/100g). These values indicate that Vigna unguiculata sub spp. sesquipedalis has the tendency of being a good quality food
Abbas, M. N., Rana, S. A., Shahid, M., Mahmud-ul-Hassan, M. & Hassan, M. (2012). Chemical evaluation of weeds mixed with wheat grains at harvest. The Journal Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 2, pp. 283-288.
Abbey, B. W. & Ibeh, G. O. (2006). Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Journal of Food Science, 53, 6, pp. 1775-1777.
Abiodun, A. O. & Umeonuora, U. C. (2013). Mineral, vitamins and antinutritional component of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed processed with alum and trona. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Technology and Food Technology, 5, 5, pp. 71-78.
Abu-Arab, A. A. & Abu-Salem, F. M. (2010). Nutritional quality of Jatropha curcas seeds and effect of some physical and chemical treatments on their anti-nutritional factors. African Journal of Food Science, 4, 3, pp. 93-103.
Abulayeh, Z. H. M., Lamazian, H. R., Serade, P., Chekman, I., Al-Khalifa, I. I., Al-Azzam, K.M. & Hassouneh, L. K. M. (2016). Comparative study of amino acid composition in the seeds, pulp and rind from Citurllus colocynthis fruit. International Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8, 3, pp. 433-437.
Day, R. A. and Underwood, A. C. (1986). Qualitative analysis. 5th ed. Prentice Hall Publisher, New Jersey. P. 701.
Del-Rio, A., Obdulio, B. G., Costillo, J., Mann, F. G. & Otuno, A. (1997). Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46, pp.4505-4515.
Dzomeku, B. M., Bam, R. K., Abu-Kwarteng, E. E. & Ankomah, A. A. (2006). Comparative study on the nutritional values of FHIA-21 (TetraploidHybrid) and ‘apem’ (Triploid French plantain) in Ghana. Journal of Plant Science, pp.181-191.
Eddy, N. O. & Udoh, C. L. (2005). Proximate evaluation of the nutritional value of some soup thickeners. CHEMCLASS Journal 2, pp. 12-14.
Eddy, N. O., Udofia, P. J. & Ukpong, I. J. (2012). The roles of leguminous plant in mineral nutrition. Published in the proceedings of the Chemical Society of Nigeria 27th International Conference (a supplement of the Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria), pp. 329-332.
Ekop, A. S.. and Eddy, N. O. (2005). Comparative studies of the level of toxicant in the seeds of Terminalia catappa (Indian almond) and Coulaedulis (African walnut). CHEMCLASS Journal 2, pp. 14-76.
Ene-Obong, H. N. & Carnovale, E. (1992). A comparison of the proximate, mineral and amino acid composition of some known and lesser known legumes in Nigeria. Food Chemistry, 43, pp. 169-175.
Faruk, U. Z., Sani, A. & Hassan, L. G. (2002). Proximate composition of sickle pod (Sennaobtusi folia) leaves. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11, pp.157-164.
Gemede, H. F. (2014). Potential health benefits and adverse effects associated with phytate in foods: A review. Global Journal of Medical Research, 14, pp. 23-31.
Goodson, A. (2018). 10 evidence-based benefits of magnesium. www.healthline.com/nutrition/manganese
Hassan, L. G. & Umar, K. J. (2005). Protein and amino acids composition of African lowcost bean (Parkia biglobosa). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem, 5, pp. 45-50.
Idris, S., Yisa, J, & Itodo, A. U. (2009). Analysis of nutritional components of leaves of Moringa oleifera. International Journal of Chemical Science, 2, 2, pp. 268-274.
Ingale, S. & Shrivastava, S. K. (2011). Amino acid profile of some new varieties of oil seeds. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3, pp. 111-115.
Kone, D., Kone, F. M., T., Dje, M. K., Dabonne, S. & Kouame, P. (2014). Effect of cooking time on biological and functional properties of flour from yam “kponan” (Dioscorea cayenensis rotundata) tubers. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4, pp. 3402-3418.
Kubala, J. (2018). Zinc: everything you need to know. https://www.healthline,com/nutrition/zinc
Mana, F. M. M., Oliveira, J. T. A., Matos, M. R.T., Moreira, R. A. & Vasconcelos, I. M. (2000). Proximate composition, amino acid content and haemaglutinating and trysin-inhibiting activities of some Brazillian Vigna unguiculate )L). Walp cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, pp. 453-458.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A. & Greenhalgh, T. F. D. (1987). Animal nutrition. 4th ed. Longman Group Ltd, Hong Kong, pp. 126-134.
Morr, C. (1990).Current status of soy protein functionality in food systems. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 67, pp. 265-271.
Musah, M., Ndamitso, M. M., Olamide, A. O., Yerima, H. and Musa, Y. (2014). Assessment of the nutritional composition of Caesalpina pulcherrima seeds. Lapai Journal of Science and Technology, 2, pp. 13-21.
Ndamitso, M. M., Jagaba, M., Musah, M., Mann, A., Mohammed, E. B. & Umar, A. (2016). Chemical composition, antinutritien content and functional properties of Corchorus olitorius and Melochia corchorifolia. FUW Trends in Science and Technology, 1, pp. 96-100.
Niangoran, N. A. M., Due, A. E., Fankroma, M. T. K. & Kouame, L.P. (2015). Functional properties of seed flours of different cultivars of Citrullus lanatus cultivated in Cote d’Ivoire. International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences, 1, 5, pp. 32-48.
Njintang, N. Y., Mbafung, C. M. F. & Waldron, K. W. (2001). In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.
Adeyeye, E. I. & Agesin, O. O. (2007). Dehulling the African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hoshst) seed: any nutritional importance? Bangladesh Journal of Science and Industrial Research, 42, 2, pp. 163-174.
Akubor, P. I. & Chukwu, J. K. (1999). Proximate composition and selected functional properties of fermented and unfermented African oil bean (Penthaclethra macrophylla) seed flour. Plants for Human Nutrition, 54, pp. 227-238.
Al-Farga, A., Zhang, H., Siddeeg, A., Shamoon, M.,Chamba,M. V. M. & Al-Hajj, N. (2016). Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour. Food Chemistry,211, pp. 268-273.
American Diabetes Association (2002). Evidence based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment of diabetes and released complications, Diabetes, 25, 1, pp. 550-560.
Antonio, H. L., Pedro, G., Laura, M. L., Raman, R. M., Pedro, M. G. L. & Juan, F. Z. N. (2017). Functional properties of Lupinus angustifolius seed protein isolates. Journal of Food Quality, 7, 3, pp. 1-8.
Antova, G. A.., Stoilova, T. D., Ivanova, M. M. (2014). Proximate and lipid composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L.) cultivated in Bulgaria. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 33, 2, 146-152.
AOAC (2006). Methods of analysis of the Official Analytic Chemists, 18th edition. Association of Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC
Aremu, M. O., Salau, R. B. & Suleiman, A. A. (2012). Compositional evaluation of young shoot of Delep palm (Borassus aethiopum, mart) and white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour. International Journal of Chemical Science, 5, 2, pp. 168-171.
Asibey-Berko, E. & Taiye, F. A. K. (1999). Proximate analysis of some under-utilized Ghanian vegetables. Ghanian Journal of Science, 39, pp. 91-92
Bamigboye, A. Y., Okafor, A. C. & Adepoju, O. T. (2010). Proximate and mineral composition of whole and dehulled Nigerian sesame seed. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1, 3, pp. 71-75.
Barakat, H. Khalifa, I. Ghazal, G. A. Shams, A. & Denev, P. N. (2017). Chemical composition and nutritional value of seeds from quinoa accessions, cultivated in Egypt. Bulgerian Chemical Communication, 49, pp. 231-238.
Bell, L., Halstensen, C. E., Macres, M. & Keane, W. F. (1996). Cholesterol lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesteromia. Archive of Internal Medicine, 152, 12, pp. 2441-2444.
Ceiwyn, S. J. (1998). Analytical Chemistry of food. Chapman and Hall publisher, London, pp 75-77.
Chung, K. T., Wong, T. Y., Wei, C., Huang, Y. W. and Lin, Y. (2010). Tannins and human health: A review. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 38, 6, pp. 421-464.
Crop Update (2018). Harvest and storage of pulses: combining pea and field bean desiccation https://www.pgro.org/crop-update-8-august-2018 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, pp. 2465-2471.
Nzekwe, U., Ajuziogu, G. C., Njoku, E. U., Okafor, G. I., Sani, M. B., Onyeke, C. C., Onyeonagu, C. C., Ohaneje, A. A. & Eze, C. S. (2016).
Nutritional food content of seed and effects of five different growing media on the seed germination and seedling growth of Afzelia Africana SM Caesalpiniaceae. African Journal of Biotechnology, 15, 11, pp. 384-391
Ogbuagbu, M. N., Odoemelam, S. A. and Ano, A. O. (2011). Chemical composition of under-utilized tropical African seed: Adenanthera pavonina. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 36, 1, pp. 23-28.
Ogundele, J.O., Oshodi, A. A. and Amoo, I. A. (2012). Comparative study of amino acids, proximate composition of Citurllus colocynthis and Citrullus vulaaris seeds. Journal of Nutrition, 11, 3, pp. 247-251.
Ogungbenle, H. N. (2006). Chemical composition, functional properties and amino composition of some edible seeds. Rivista Italia Delle Sostanzamarzo, 14, pp. 81-86.
Ojo, M. A. & Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O. (2015). Some functional and physical properties of selected underutilized hard-to-cook legumes in Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2, pp. 73-81.
Olorode, O. O., Idowu, M. A., Bamgbose, A. & Ayano, A. E. (2014). Chemical, phytochemical and functional properties of selected seeds’ flour. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3, 6, pp. 572-578.
Philips, R. D., Chinnan, M. S., Branch, A. L., Miller, J. & McWaters, K. H. (1998). Effects of pretreatment on functional and nutritional properties of cowpea meal. Journal of Food Science, 53, pp. 805-809.
Ruiz-Cruz, S., Hernandez, S.C., Hernandez-Ruiz, K. L., Civa-Chavez, L. A. Estroda-Alvarado, M. I., Ortega, L. E., Ornelas-Paz, J. J. & Mata, M. A.
L. (2017). Favonoids: important biocompounds in food.
Singh, B.B., Chambliss, O.L. & Sharma, B. (1997). Recent advances in black pea. In: B.B. Singh, D.R. Mohan Raj, K.E. Dashiel and L.E.N. Jackai (eds.). Advances in black pea, research co-publication of international institute of tropical agriculture (IITA) and Japan international research center for agriculture sciences (JIRCAS). Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 30 –49.
Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, pp. 14-20.
Swaminathan, R. (2003). Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. The Clinical Biochemist Review, 24, 2, 47-66.
Temple, V. J., Odewumi, L. & Joseph, K. (1991). Soya bean and soya bean based diets. Proceedings of the 3rd Regional Workshop on Rural Development, Jos, pp. 45-50.
Trease, E. & Evans, W. C. (1996). Phytochemical of plants. In: Pharmacognosy, 14th ed., Alden Press, Oxford, pp. 213-233.
Tukura, B. W. & Obliva, O. (2015). Proximate and nutritional composition of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) seeds. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Technology and Food Technology, 9, 3, pp. 68-73
Victor, B. (2014). Health benefits of plant alkaloids. https://benvictor.blogspot.com/2014/04/therapeutic-value.of.plant-alkaloids.htm
Wilson, D. R, (2017). Health benefits and risks copper. Medical News Today. https//medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288165
Yoshimura, M., Takhashi, H. and Nakanishi, T. (1991). Role of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium on blood pressure regulation and antihypertensive dietary therapy. Japanese Journal of Nutrition, 49, pp.53-62.
Yoshiyuku, S. and Yukata, K. (2003). Pyrolysis of plant, animal and human wastes: physical and chemical characterization of the pyrolytic product. Bioresource Technology, 90, 3, pp. 241-247.
Copyright (c) 2020 The Journal and the author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.