Development of Heterogeneous Catalyst from Waste Cow Bone Using Parinarium Macrophylum Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production


  • Abdulfatai A. Otori Federal Polytechnic, Bida, PMB 55, Niger State
  • Akeem A. Jimoh Kwara State University, Malete, PMB 1350, Kwara State
  • John T. Mathew Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, PMB 11, Niger State


P. mcrophylum seed oil, waste cow bone, transesterification, , ASTM standard


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2021, 7(3): 203-217

Authors: Abdulfatai  Aideye Otori,  Akeem Adebayo Jimoh, and  John Tsado Mathew

Received 17 August  2021/Accepted 25 September 2021

The production of biodiesel from oil seeds as feedstock is gaining more attention for the purpose of having alternative fuels without interfering with the food chain. In this study, biodiesel was produced from oils extracted from the P. macrophylum feed, which served as a  feedstock. The physicochemical properties of the extracted seed oil were characterized for % yield (45.0%), specific gravity (0.82), refractive index (0.92), pH (4.52), colour (brown),  acid value (4.3), saponification (108), iodine value (110), peroxide value (5.3) and viscosity (6.7). The cow bones sample were crushed into fine powdered of size, 105 µm, and calcined at 500 0C. The calcined cow bone was characterized for TGA, XRF, XRD, BET, SEM, and IR. The optimization of the biodiesel production process parameters was done experimentally for the characterize seed oil extracted using the calcined calcium oxide catalyst obtained from the cow bone. The optimized parameters gave methanol to oil ratio (6:1), temperature (55 0C), catalyst concentration (1:8 wt%), reaction time (60 min) and agitation speed (350 rpm). The biodiesel yield for the optimized parameters ranged from 75 to 85%. The properties of the produced biodiesel were within the recommended biodiesel standards (ASTM 6751). The cloud point (-10.5 0C) of the produced biodiesel indicate that the product  can be used in cold temperature region without blending. This study has revealed that P. macrophylum seed is a good feedstock for biodiesel production. Based on these findings, it is recommended that this plant should be domesticated


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Author Biographies

Abdulfatai A. Otori, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, PMB 55, Niger State

Department of Chemical Engineering,

Akeem A. Jimoh, Kwara State University, Malete, PMB 1350, Kwara State

Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry

John T. Mathew, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, PMB 11, Niger State

Department of Chemistry


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