Sorption Studies of Methylene Blue Using Activated Carbon Produced from Rice Husk


  • Nathaniel Atamas Bahago Kaduna State University, Tafawa Balewa Way, PMB 2339 Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria


Aquatic pollution, methylene blue, remediation, adsorption, activated carbon.


Authors: Nathaniel Atamas Bahago, Gideon Wyasu, and Vincent Chijioke Ugboaja

Received 29 November 2018/Accepted 25 December 2018

Activated carbon was produced from rice husk and used for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions through the batch adsorption method. The results obtained indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue did not depend significantly on particle size but on the period of contact, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of the dye. The adsorption responded significantly to the assumptions establishing Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption was also spontaneous and supported the mechanism of physical adsorption


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Nathaniel Atamas Bahago, Kaduna State University, Tafawa Balewa Way, PMB 2339 Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Chemical Sciences


Chavan, R. (2001). Environment-friendly dyeing processes for cotton. Industrial Jornal of Fibre and Textile Research, 26, 1, pp. 93-100.

Crini, G. (2005). Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment,. Progress in Polymer Sciences, 30, 1, pp. 38–70.

Eddy, N. O. & Odoemelam, S. A. (2008). Sparfloxacin and norfloxacin as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel: Kinetics, thermodynamics and adsorption consideration. Journal of Materials Sciences, 4, 1, pp. 1-5.

Eddy, N. O. & Udoh, C. L. (2006). Introduction to environmental chemistry, Patom Press, Nigeria.

Eddy, N. O. (2009). Modeling of the adsorption of Zn2+ from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified Cyperus esculentus shell. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agriculture. & Food Chemistry, 8, 11, pp. 1177-1185.

Eddy, N. O., Awe, Femi & Ebenso, E. E. (2010). Adsorption and inhibitive properties of ethanol extracts of leaves of Solanum melongena for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.1M HCl. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 5, pp. 1996-2011

Eddy, N. O., Udoh, C. L. & Ukpong, I. J. (2004). Heavy metals in the sediment of the Cross River Estuary at Oron, South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 3, 1, pp. 6-10.

Ekop, A. S. & Eddy, N. O. (2010). Thermodynamic study on the adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solution by human hair. E. Journal of Chemistry, 7, 4, pp. 1296-1303.

Ekop, A. S. & Eddy, N. O. (2009). Adsorption of Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous Solution by Helix aspera shell. E. Journal of Chemistry, 6, 4, pp. 1-6.

Ekuma, F. K. Amadi, O.K., Ngwu, C.M. & Ogu, H. (2017). Sorption Kinetics of Cr(lll), Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) ions from aqueous solution by Monkey bread (Piliostigma thonningii) seed pod. Chemistry Research Journal, 2(5):163-171.

Karadag, D., Turan, M., Akgul, E., Tok, S., & Faki, A. (2007). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of reactive Black 5 and reactive Red 239 in aqueous solution onto surfactant-modified zeolite. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 52, pp. 1615-1620.

Kumar, P. P. (2011). A comparative study on the treatment methodes of textile dye effluents. Global Journal of Enviromental Research, 5, p. 46-52.

Malik, P. K. (2004). Dye removal from wastewater using carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 113, 1-3, pp. 81-88.

Mheshwari, U., Deshpande, D., Zare, K. & Vardhe, P. (2017). Removal of dye from aqueous solution by using activated carbon. Research Journal of Engineering Science, 6, 7, pp. 20-24.

Jintanawasan, W. C. (November 2011). Adsorption of congo red by rice husk. TIChE Conference, pp. 10-11.

Okwunodulu, F. U. & Eddy, N. O. (2013). Equilibrium and thermodynamic consideration of Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution onto treated and untreated Cola nitida waste biomass. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2, 3, pp. 567-569.

Patil, S. N. (2011). Removal of Methylene blue, a basic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption using teak tree (Tectona grandis) bark powder. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1, 5, pp. 711-726.

Srivastava, V. C., Mall, I. D. & Mishra, I. M. (2006). Characterization of mesoporous rice husk ash (RHA) and adsorption, J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 45, 4, pp. 580 -586

Uchechukwu, O. F., Azubuike, O. S., Odoemelam, S. A. & Eddy, N. O. (2018). Kolanut pod husk: a potential biosorbent for Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+. African Journal of Environment and Natural Science Research, 1, 2, pp. 1-9.

Uchechukwu, O. F., Odoemelam, S. A;. Azubuike, O. S., & Eddy, N. O. (2015). Biosorption of Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ by the shell of Pentaclethra macrophylla: equilibrium isotherm studies. Journal of Science Technology and Environmental Informatics, 2, 1, pp. 26-35.

Venkatesharaju K., R. P. (2010). Physico-chemical and bacteriological investigation on the river cauvery of kollegal stretch in Karnataka. Kathmandu University. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 6, 1, pp. 50-59.

Tongpoothorn, M. S. (2011). Preparation of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas fruit shell by simple thermo-chemical activation and characterization of their physico-chemical properties. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 89,, pp. 335-340,.

Wang, Y., & Chu, W. (2011). Adsorption and Removal of a Xanthene Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Two Solid Wastes as Adsorbents. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, pp. 8734-8741.

Sharma, Y. C. (2011). An economically viable removal of Methylene blue by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from rice husk. Canadian journal of Chemical Engneering, 89, pp. 377–383,.

Zhang, L., Liu, Y., Wang, S., Liu, B. & Peng, J. (2015) Selective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by an activated carbon-based multicarboxyl adsorbent. RSC Advance, 5, pp. 99618–99626.

Zheng, X., Yu, N., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Wang, L., Li, X. & Hu, X. (2018). Adsorption properties of granular activated carbon-supported titanium dioxide particles for dyes and copper ions. Scientific Report, 8, 6463,

Zou, W., Li, K., Bai, H., Shi, X., & Han, R. (2011). Ehanced cationic dyes removal from aqueous solution by oxalic acid modified rice husk. Journal of Chemical & Engineering, 56. 5, pp. 1882-1891.