Effects of Abattoir Activities in the Surrounding Soils within Abuja, Nigeria


  • Mercy Uwem Useh Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja
  • Danlami Uzama Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja
  • Patrick Obigwa Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja


Abattoir, heavy metals, soil, organic matter, contamination factor


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(1): 58-74

Authors: Mercy Uwem Useh*, Danlami Uzama  and Patrick Obigwa

Received: 02 March 2022/Accepted  11 March 2022

The various activities taking place in abattoirs all over the world today can contaminate the environment through direct or indirect impacts. This study aims to investigate the impact of abattoir wastes on the environment. Soil samples from proximity to five selected abattoirs (Kubwa, Dei-Dei, Dutse Alhaji, Gwarimpa, Mpape) in Abuja were examined to ascertained the level of contamination in terms of the physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents of the soil. The results revealed that all the studied soils are acidic (5.2±0.0 - 5.9±0.1)  Most physicochemical properties, including conductivity (18.9±0.2 µs/cm to 27.4±0.6 µs/cm), bulk density (1.4±0.0 gcm-3 to 1.9±0.0 gcm-3), salinity (15.3±0.0 mgkg-1 to 20.0±0.0 mgkg-1), organic matter (7.9±0.0 % and11.4±0.0 %), cation exchange capacity (57.3±0.1 cmol/kg to 76.4±0.3 cmol/kg) were observed to be higher in the studied abattoir soils than in the control (15.4±0.0 µs/cm), (1.3±0.2 gcm-3), (11.5±0.0 mgkg-1), (5.2±0.1 %), (34.6±0.1 cmol/kg) respectively. All the studied heavy metal ions (Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were higher in the abattoir soils than in the control site except that Fe was equally higher in the control and all were above the FEPA (1999) recommended. Some geochemical assessment techniques including Contamination factor (CF), Enrichment factor (EF), Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), Degree of contamination (Cdeg) and Pollution load index (PLI) as computed showed that all the abattoir soils studied were very highly contaminated (32 < Cdeg)  with the studied metals (Cu2+ >Zn2+ >Ni2+ >Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cr3+ >Fe2+) in that order with Cu being the most abundant metal.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mercy Uwem Useh, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja

Chemistry Advanced Research Centre

Danlami Uzama , Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja

Chemistry Advanced Research Centre

Patrick Obigwa, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja

Chemistry Advanced Research Centre


Abubakar, G. A. & Tukur, A. (2014). Impact of abattoir effluent on soil chemical properties in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1, 4, pp.100-107.

Adepoju, M. O. & Adekoya, J. A. (2012). Distribution and assessment of heavy metals in sediments of the river Orle, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection, 2, 1, pp. 78-97.

Al-Anbari, R., Abdul Hameed, M. J., Obaidy, A. l. & Fatima, H. A. A. (2015). Pollution loads and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the urban soil affected by various anthropogenic activities. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2, pp.104–110.

American Public Health Association. (2009). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. APHA, AWWA, WEF/2009, APHA Publication. 20th ed. Washington DC.

Ashraf, M. A., Maah, M. I. & Yusoff, I. (2012). Chemical speciation and potential mobility of heavy metals in the soil of former tin mining catchment. Sci World J. 4, 2, pp. 1-11.

Auwalu, A., Norizhar, K., Azmi, H. & Ibrahim, S. M. (2015). Negative Impact of Abattoir Activities and Management in Residential Neighbourhoods in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia International Journal of Public Health Science. 4, 2, pp. 124-130.

Baran, A., Wieczorek, J., Mazurek, R., Urban´ski, K., & Klimkowicz-Pawlas, A. (2018). Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40, 1, pp. 435–450.

Begum, K., Mohiuddin, K. M., Zakir, H. M., Moshfiqur, R. M. & Nazmul, H. M. (2014). Heavy metal pollution and major nutrient elements assessment in the soils of Bogra City in Bangladesh. Canadian Chemical Transactions, 3, pp. 316–326.

Chibuzor, O. J., Nwakonobi, T. U. & Itodo, I. N. (2017). Influence of physicochemical characteristic of soils on heavy metal contamination in Makurdi, Benue State. International Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11, pp. 84 -92.

Chukwu, U. J. & Anuchi, S. O. (2016). Impact of Abattoir Wastes on the Physicochemical Properties of Soils within Port Harcourt Metropolis. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 5, 6, pp. 17 -21.

Dan, E., Fatunla, K. & Shuaibu, S. (2018). Influence of abattoir wastes on soil microbial and physicochemical properties. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation, 6, 4, pp. 253-261.

Dung, T. T., Cappuyns, V., Swennen, R., & Phung, N. K. (2013). From geochemical background determination to pollution assessment of heavy metals in sediments and soils. Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology, 12, pp. 335–353.

Eddy, N. O., Odoemelam, S. A. & Mbaba, A. (2006). Elemental composition of soil in some dumpsites. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agriculture and Food Chemistry: 5, 3, pp. 1349-1363.

Ediene, V. F., Iren, O. B. & Idiong, M. M. (2016). Effect of abattoir effluents on the physicochemical properties of surrounding soils in Calabar Metropolis. International Journal of Advance Research, 4, 8, pp. 37 – 41.

Edori, O. S & Iyama, W. A. (2017). Assessment of physicochemical parameters of soils from selected abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 4, 2, pp. 194 -201.

Emmanuel, D., Kayode, F. and Solomon S. (2018). Influence of abattoir wastes on soil microbial and physicochemical properties. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation. 6, 4, pp. 253-261.

Environmental analysis -water, soil and air. 2nd edition, (2016). Agro Botanical Pulishers (India). 123-148.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). (1999). National Guidelines and Standards for Soil Quality in Nigeria. FEPA, Rivers State Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Port Harcourt.

Gasiorek, M., Kowalska, J., Mazurek, R., & Paja˛k, M. (2017). Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal pollution in topsoil of historical urban park on an example of the Planty Park in Krakow (Poland). Chemosphere, 179, pp. 148–158.

Ghazaryan, K. A., Gevorgyan, G. A., Movsesyan, H. S., Ghazaryan, N. P. & Grigoryan, K. V. (2015). The evaluation of heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine, Rome, Italy. Chemosphere, 1, 7, pp. 161–166.

Godwin, A. E., Ekomobong, S. E. &Emmanuel, U. D. (2020). Impact of Abattoir Wastes on Trace Metal Accumulation, Speciation, and Human Health–Related Problems in Soils within Southern Nigeria. Air, Soil and Water Research, 13, pp. 1–14.

Ha˚kanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic. Pollution control: A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14, 975–1001.

Inengite, A. K., Abasi, C. Y., & Walter, C. (2015). Application of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in flood impacted soil. International Research Journal of Pure & Applied Chemistry, 8, pp. 175–189.

Jiang, X., Lu, W. X., Zhao, H. Q., Yang, Q. C., & Yang, Z. P. (2014). Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 1, 4, pp. 1599–1610.

Karim, Z., Qureshi, B. A., & Mumtaz, M. (2015). Geochemical baseline determination and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban soils of Karachi, Pakistan. Ecological Indicators, 48, pp. 358–364.

Kierczak, J., Pedziwiatr, A., Waroszewski, J., & Modelska, M. (2016). Mobility of Ni, Cr and Co in serpentine soils derived on various ultrabasic bedrocks under temperate climate. Geoderma, 268, pp. 78–91.

Kowalska, J., Mazurek, R., Ga˛siorek, M., Setlak, M., Zaleski, T., & Waroszewski, J. (2016). Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity: A case study from Krakow (Poland). Environmental Pollution, 218, pp. 1023–1036.

Liu, R., Wang, M., Chen, W., & Peng, C. (2016). Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors. Environmental Pollution, 210, pp. 174–181.

Mahmoudabadi, E., Sarmadian, F., & Nazary Moghaddam, R. (2015). Spatial distribution of soil heavy metals in different land uses of an industrial area of Tehran (Iran). International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 1, 2, pp. 3283–3298.

Mazurek, R., Kowalska, J., Ga˛siorek, M., Zadrozny, P., Jo´zefowska, A. & Zaleski, T. (2017). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution. Chemosphere, 168, pp. 839–850.

Mmolawa, K. B., Likuku, A. S. & Gaboutloeloe, G. K. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside areas in Botswana. Afr J Environ Sci Technol. 5, 2, pp. 186-196.

Moez, B., Houda, B., Ridha, A. & Chafal A. (2018). Assessment of heavy metals contamination and their potential toxicity in the surface sediments of Sfax Solar Saltern, Tunisia. Environmental Earth Science. 7, 7, pp. 27-49.

Muller, G. 1969. Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geo. J., 2, 3, pp. 108-118.

Neboh, H. A., IIusanya, O. A., Ezekoye, C. C. & Orji, F. A. (2013). Assessment of Ijebu-Igbo abattoir effluent and its impact on the ecology of the receiving soil and river. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science and Food Technology, 7, 5, pp. 61-67.

Olayinka, O. O., Akande, O. O., Bamgbose, K. & Adetunji, M. T. (2017). Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil samples obtained from selected anthropogenic sites in Abeokuta, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 21, 5, pp. 883 – 891.

Osu, C. I. & Okereke, V. C. (2015). Heavy metal accumulation from abattoir wastes on soils and some edible vegetables in selected areas in Umuahia metropolis. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4, 6, pp. 1127 – 1132.

Pan, L., Ma, L., Wang, X., & Hou, H. (2016). Heavy metals in soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China: Levels, sources and spatial distribution. Chemosphere, 148, pp. 248–254.

Pekey, H., Karakas, D., Ayberk, S., Tolun, L. & Bakoglu, M. (2004). Ecological risk assessment using trace elements from surface sediments of ˙Izmit Bay (Northeastern Marmara Sea) Turkey. Mar Pollut Bullet, 4, 8, pp. 946-953.

Sayadi, M. H., Shabani, M., & Ahmadpour, N. (2015). Pollution index and ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface soils of Amir-Abad Area in Birjand City, Iran. Health Scope, 4, pp. 121–137.

Simeon, E.O. & Friday, K. (2018). Index Models Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils within Selected Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Singapore Journal of Scientific Research, 7, pp. 9 – 15.

Sumayya, B. U., Usman, B. U., Aisha, U., Shahida, A., Mohammad, A., Yakubu, M. S. & Zainab, M. (2019). Determination of Physiochemical Qualities of Abattoir Effluent on Soil and Water in Gandu, Sokoto State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 4, 4, pp. 47-50.

Tomlinson, D. C., Wilson, J. G., Harris, C. R., & Jeffrey, D. W. (2012). Problems in the assessment of heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters, 33, pp. 566-575.

Ubwa, S. T., Atoo, G. H., Offem, J. O., Abah, J. & Asemave, K. (2013). Effect of Activities at the Gboko Abattoir on Some Physical Properties and Heavy Metals Levels of Surrounding Soil. International Journal of Chemistry, 5, 1, pp. 49 – 57.

Useh, M. U., Etuk-Udo, G. A & Dauda, M. S. (2015). Evaluating the physicochemical properties and heavy metals in soils of municipal waste dumpsites at Kubwa, Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences. 5, 1, pp. 654-662.

Useh, M. U., Useh, U. J. & Dauda, M. S. (2017). Characterization of environmental samples around an indigenous refinery in Nigeria. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2, 6, pp. 73-79.

Useh, M. U. & Dauda, M. S. (2018). Heavy Metals Contamination and their Potential Toxicity in Petroleum Sludge Impacted Soils from Itsekiri Communities, Delta State, Nigeria. Chemical Science International Journal. 24(1): 1-15.

USEPA. Test methods for evaluating solid waste. 5th ed. (2012). Method 3031, acid digestion of oils for metals analysis by atomic absorption or ICP spectrometry, United States Office of Solid Waste, EPA 542-F-12-003 Environmental Protection Emergency Response. Washington, DC;

Varol, M. (2011). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Tigris River (Turkey) using pollution indices and multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, pp. 355–364.