Quality Assessment of Wastewater Released by Funtua Textile Limited, North Western Nigeria


  • Sani Uba Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Calvin O. Nwokem Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Divine Chinwendu Ikeh* Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Oluwaseun Simon Adeosun Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Abel Kayit Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria
  • Murtala Mohammed Ruma Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina.
  • Lauretta Ngozi Nwagu Enugu State University of Science and Technology


Wastewater, Funtua textile, WQI, physicochemical parameters, Nigeria


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2022, 8(1): 75-80

Authors: Sani Uba, C. O. Nwokem,  Divine C. Ikeh,  O. S. Adeosun, K. Abel, M. M. Ruma, and  L. N. Nwagu

Received: 09 January 2022/Accepted  24 March 2022

This research is focused on the assessment of the levels of physicochemical parameters and Water Quality Index (WQI) of wastewater samples collected from Funtua Textile and its environment using standard analytical methods. The results obtained were compared to those of the world health organization WHO (2011) recommended levels. Some of the analysed physicochemical parameters were carbonate ion (CO32-), chloride ion (Cl-), calcium ion (Ca2+), nitrate ion (NO3-), total hardness (TH), colour and pH. The concentrations of CO32- , Cl-, TH, Ca2+ and NO3- were in the ranges of 317.7±5.6 (P10) to 498.0±1.6 (P1), 160.0±0.2 ) (P8) to 199.5± 0.6 (P1), 282.0±0.13 (P10) to 8837.9±0.2 (P7), 222.9±0.3 (P3) to 1518.2±0.00 (P1) and 44.1±0.3 (P9) to 57.9±0.30 mg/L, respectively. Those of pH and color were; 7.9±0.00 (P8 and P9) to 8.9±0.00 (P3) and 5.0±0.00 (P4, P7, P8, P9) to 60.0±0.0 0 (P1), respectively. Thus the concentrations of TH were found to be above the WHO (2011) permissible limit across the sampling points, while the levels of Cl- and pH were found to be within the permissible limit set by WHO (2011). However, the levels of CO32- and Ca2+ across the sampling points were above the recommended levels set by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, 2007). The levels of the physicochemical parameters analysed across the sampling points were in the following trend: P1>P3>P5>P4>P2> P6>P10>P7>P8>P9. The WQI recorded in this study was 61.58, this value falls into the poor category which is normally in the range of 51-75. Thus, the samples were found to be poor for use in both domestic and agricultural purposes unless subjected to further treatment. This is because, good quality water should be free from both chemical and biological contaminations, and must be acceptable in terms of color, taste, and odour. Generally, P1 was found to be the most contaminated and P9 the least contaminated. The results reveal that there was no significant difference in the levels of the analyzed physicochemical parameters at 95% (P< 0.05) confidence limit across the sampling sites. This clearly shows that the samples have a common pollution source


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sani Uba , Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Department of chemistry

Calvin O. Nwokem, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Department of chemistry

Divine Chinwendu Ikeh*, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Department of chemistry

Oluwaseun Simon Adeosun , Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Department of chemistry

Abel Kayit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Department of chemistry

Murtala Mohammed Ruma, Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina.

Department of Geography

Lauretta Ngozi Nwagu , Enugu State University of Science and Technology

Department of Industrial Chemistry


Ahmed, A. T. A., Mandal, S., Chowdhury, D. A., Tareq, A. R. M., & Rahman, M. M. (2012). Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in Ayre Fish (Sperata Aor Hamilton, 1822), sediment and water of Dhaleshwari River in the dry season. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 40, 1, pp. 147-153.

Ahuti, S. (2015). Industrial growth and environmental degradation. International Education and Research Journal, 1, 5, pp. 5-7.

American Public Health Association (APHA), 2012. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste-Water, twenty-second ed.American Public Health Association, Washington DC.

Aniyikaiye, T. E., Oluseyi, T., Odiyo, J. O., & Edokpayi, J. N. (2019). Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater discharge from selected paint industries in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 7, pp. 12-35.

Bakar, N. A., Othman, N., Yunus, Z. M., Daud, Z., Norisman, N. S., & Hisham, M. H. (2020, May). Physico-chemical water quality parameters analysis on textile. In IOP conference series: earth and environmental science, 498, 1, pp. 012-077.

Betha, R., Behera, S. N., & Balasubramanian, R. (2014). 2013 Southeast Asian smoke haze: fractionation of particulate-bound elements and associated health risk. Environmental Science & Technology, 48,8, pp. 4327-4335.

Cheremisinoff, N. P. (2001). Handbook of water and wastewater treatment technologies. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Chowdhary, P., Yadav, A., Kaithwas, G., & Bharagava, R. N. (2017). Distillery wastewater: a major source of environmental pollution and its biological treatment for environmental safety. In Green Technologies and Environmental Sustainability, 1,1, pp. 409-435).

Datta, S., Ghosh, D., Saha, D. R., Bhattacharaya, S., & Mazumder, S. (2009). Chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to Clarias batrachus. Aquatic Toxicology, 92,2, pp. 86-94.

Eddy, N. O & Garg, R. (2021). CaO nanoparticles: Synthesis and application in water purification. Chapter 11. In: Handbook of research on green synthesis and applications of nanomaterials. Garg, R., Garg, R. and Eddy, N. O, edited. IGI Global Publisher. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8936-6.

Eddy, N. O. & Ekop, A. S. (2007). Assessment of the quality of water treated and distributed by the AkwaIbom Water Company. E. Journal of Chemistry, 4, 2, pp. 180-186.

Eddy, N. O., Garg, R., Garg, R., Aikoye, A. & Ita, B. I. (2022). Waste to resource recovery: mesoporous adsorbent from orange peel for the removal of trypan blue dye from aqueous solution. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, DOI: 10.1007/s13399-022-02571-5.

Eddy, N. O., Odoemelam, S. A. & Mbaba, A. (2006). Elemental composition of soil in some dumpsites. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 5, 3, pp. 1349-1363.

European Environment Agency, EEA. (2018). Unequal exposure and unequal impacts: social vulnerability to air pollution, noise and extreme temperatures in Europe. EEA Report NO 22/2018.

Ihesinachi, K. A., Lois, N. N., & Stephen, A. I. (2020). Bioenergy from waste paw-paw fruits and peels using single chamber microbial fuel cells. Journal of Fundamental of Renewable Energy and Application, 10,8, pp. 1-5

Imtiazuddin, S. M., Mumtaz, M., & Mallick, K. A. (2012). Pollutants of wastewater characteristics in textile industries. J Basic App Sci, 8, pp. 554-556.

Iram, S., Zaman, A., Iqbal, Z., & Shabbir, R. (2013). Heavy metal tolerance of fungus isolated from soil contaminated with sewage and industrial wastewater. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22, 3.

Kumar, A., & Dua, A. (2009). Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river Ravi at Madhopur (India). Global journal of environmental sciences, 8,1.

Lapworth, D. J., Stuart, M. E., Pedley, S., Nkhuwa, D. C. W., & Tijani, M. N. (2017). A review of urban groundwater use and water quality challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Lokhande, R. S., Singare, P. U., & Pimple, D. S. (2011). Toxicity study of heavy metals pollutants in wastewater effluent samples collected from Taloja industrial estate of Mumbai, India. Resources and Environment, 11, pp. 13-19.

Manikandan, P., Palanisamy, P. N., Baskar, R., Sivakumar, P., & Sakthisharmila, P. (2015). Physico-chemical analysis of textile industrial effluents from Tirupur city, TN, India. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering (IJARSE), 4, 2, pp. 93-104.

Mohamaden, M. I., Khalil, M. K., Draz, S. E., & Hamoda, A. Z. (2017). Ecological risk assessment and spatial distribution of some heavy metals in surface sediments of New Valley, Western Desert, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 43,1, pp. 31-43.

Nadeem, F., Hanif, M. A., Majeed, M. I., & Mushtaq, Z. (2018). Role of macronutrients and micronutrients in the growth and development of plants and prevention of deleterious plant diseases–A comprehensive review. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences, 12, pp. 31-52.

Odoemelam, S. A., Emeh, N. U. & Eddy, N. O. (2018). Experimental and computational Chemistry studies on the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution by neem (Azadiractha indica) leaves. Journal of Taibah University of Science, 12, 3, pp. 255–265 doi.org/10.1080/16583655.2018.1465725.

Okereke, J. N., Ogidi, O. I., & Obasi, K. O. (2016). Environmental and health impact of industrial wastewater effluents in Nigeria-A Review. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 3,6, pp. 55-67.

Omole, D. O., Isiorho, S. A., & Ndambuki, J. M. (2016). Waste management practices in Nigeria: Impacts and mitigation. In G. Wessel & J. K. Greenberg (Eds), Geoscience for the public good and global development: Toward a sustainable future: Geological society of America special paper, 520, pp. 377–386.

Patel, R., Tajddin, K., Patel, A., & Patel, B. (2015). Physico-chemical analysis of textile effluent. IJRSI, 5, 2, pp. 33-37.

Patil, P. N., Sawant, D. V., & Deshmukh, R. N. (2012). Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water–A review. International journal of environmental sciences, 3,3, pp. 1194-1207.

Qureshimatva, U. M., Maurya, R. R., Gamit, S. B., Patel, R. D., & Solanki, H. A. (2015). Determination of physico-chemical parameters and water quality index (Wqi) of Chandlodia Lake, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol, 5,288, pp. 1-6.

Rokade, P. B., & Ganeshwade, R. M. (2005). Impact of pollution on water quality of Salim Ali Lake at Aurangabad. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, pp. 219-220.

Rosborg, I., & Kozisek, F. (2016). Drinking water minerals and mineral balance. Springer International Pu, 1,1, pp. 175.

Sah, D., Verma, P. K., Kandikonda, M. K., & Lakhani, A. (2019). Chemical fractionation, bioavailability, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter at a site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India. Environmental Science and ollution Research, 26,19, pp. 19749-19762.

Shroff, P., Vashi, R. T., Champaneri, V. A., & Patel, K. K. (2015). Correlation study among water quality parameters of groundwater of Valsad district of south Gujarat (India). Journal of fundamental and applied sciences, 7,3, pp. 340-349.

Tafesse, T. B., Yetemegne, A. K., & Kumar, S. (2015). BThe Physico-Chemical Studies of Wastewater in Hawassa Textile Industry. J Environ Anal Chem, 2,153, pp. 2380-2391.

Todorovi Z, Poli P, Djordjevi D & Antoni JS 2001. Lead distribution in water and its association with sediment constituents of the Barje Lake, Leskovar, Yugoslavia. J. Serbian Chem. Soc., 66,1, pp. 697-708.

Uchechukwu, O. F., Azubuike, O. S. & Eddy, N. O.(2015). Biosorption of Cd2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ by the shell of Pentaclethra macrophylla. Equilibrium isotherm study. Journal of Science, Technology and Environmental Informatics, 2, 1, pp. 26-35.

World Health Organization (WHO) 2011. WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th ed. World Health Organization, Geneva. pp. 219-229.

Zhou, Y., Lu, J., Zhou, Y., & Liu, Y. (2019). Recent advances for dyes removal using novel adsorbents: a review. Environmental pollution, 252, pp. 352-365.