Geology, Geochemical and Petrographic Studies of Lokoja Sandstone Facies: Implications on Source Area Weathering, Provenance and Tectonic Settings


  • Mu’awiya Baba Aminu Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Andrew C. Nanfa Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Godwin Okumagbe Aigbadon Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Simon Dalom Christopher Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Idoko Eleojo Friday Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
  • Andarawus Yohanna Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
  • Abdulbariu Ibrahim Federal University Lokoja, 1154, Kogi State, Nigeria.
  • Sadiq Mohammed Salisu Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
  • Pam Dajack Dung University of Jos, Plateau State Nigeria.
  • Francisco Sokin Paca Geologia de Petroleo, Soyo/Angola) Angola
  • Simon Tobias National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia (Namcor) Namibia.


Authors: Mu’awiya Baba Aminu*, Andrew C. Nanfa, Godwin Okumagbe Aigbadon, Simon Dalom Christopher, Idoko Eleojo Friday, Andarawus Yohanna, Abdulbariu Ibrahim, Sadiq Mohammed Salisu, Pam Dajack Dung and Francisco Soki Paca, Simon Tobias

Received: 02 May 2023/Accepted 25 August 2023

The examination of the geology, petrographic and geochemical profiles of the Lokoja sandstone facies is the primary goal of this research. The objectives include carrying out geochemical analysis on the Lokoja sandstone facies, carrying out X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis within the Lokoja sandstone facies, carrying out X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis within the Lokoja sandstone facies and the determination of the petrographic of the Lokoja sandstone facies. A few thin oolitic iron stones and coarse-grained cross-bedded sandstone make up the geology of the study area, along with pebbly clayey grit and sandstone. Rarely exposed has been identified as a basal conglomerate composed of well-rounded quartz pebbles embedded in a white clay matrix. ranging from 100 and 300 meters in thickness, depending on the relief of the Basement Complex floor beneath. The methods used in carrying out this project research include granulometric, geochemical, and petrographic analysis. The result from the granulometric analysis was used to construct the lithology log. The log helps to determine the paleo-environmental and depositional sequence of the study area. The XRD/XRF analysis shows Quartz and Orthoclase Feldspar, as the predominant mineral assemblage recommending a low weathering contour for the Lokoja sandstones. The mineralogical composition of sandstones was detected using XRD and XRF analyses. The XRD profile of the Lokoja Sandstone A which is situated around the Nataco area consists of the following mineral obtained during the XRD: quartz, orthoclase, muscovite, kaolinite, osumilite, illite, chlorite and garnet respectively with varying percentages. The major minerals obtained from the results were quartz (67%) and orthoclase feldspar (11%). Geochemical signatures of clastic sediments can be employed to interpret the provenance nature of the deposits. The Al2O3 /TiO2 for Lokoja sandstone, claystone and shale facies of Patti Formation are 52.43 wt %, 14.21 wt %, 10.02 wt % and 10.25 wt % equally. This proportionality suggests felsic source rock for the Lokoja Sandstone and intermediate source rock for the Patti sediments. The Geology (distribution), Provenance, Weathering, Tectonic context and redox proxy of the Lokoja Sandstone, Middle-Niger basin have been determined using integrated petrographic, granulometric and geochemical advent. Major elements geochemistry and their ratios affirmed that the Lokoja sandstone is predominantly mature lithic arenites including sub-greywacke and protoquartzites impact of felsic igneous provenances on the static basin.


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Author Biographies

Mu’awiya Baba Aminu, Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Geology

Andrew C. Nanfa, Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Geology

Godwin Okumagbe Aigbadon, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Geology, Faculty of Science

Simon Dalom Christopher, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Geology, Faculty of Science

Idoko Eleojo Friday, Federal University Lokoja, 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Department of Geology

Faculty of Science,

Andarawus Yohanna, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Department of Geology

Abdulbariu Ibrahim, Federal University Lokoja, 1154, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Department of Geology

Pam Dajack Dung, University of Jos, Plateau State Nigeria.

Department of Geology

Francisco Sokin Paca, Geologia de Petroleo, Soyo/Angola) Angola

Department: Coordenador do Curso Extrativa


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