Goat Horn Biochar as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc ions in Aqueous Solution


  • Onanuga Omotayo Aina Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria
  • Titus Morrawa Ryaghan Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria
  • Bello Musa Opeyemi Federal University of Health Science, Ila-Orangun, Osun state, Nigeria.
  • Momoh Daniel Clement Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria


Toxic metal, adsorption, goat horn biochar, isotherm, kinetic


Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(2):107-123

Authors: Onanuga Omotayo Aina*, Titus Morrawa R, Bello Musa O, Momoh Daniel C.

Received:03January 2022/Accepted 23December 2023

Given the high toxicity of most heavy metal ions in aquatic environments and the need for remediation using environmentally friendly methods, this study was conducted to produce biochar from goat horn. The removal efficiency of the synthesised biochar in the removal of cadmium (Cd2+) and zinc (Zn2)+ions from aqueous solutions was also investigated. The proximate analysis of the goat horn biochar was carried out, the moisture content, ash content and bulk density were 10.62%, 6.5% and 0.79g/cm3 respectively. FTIR characterization shows the function group of O-H, C=H, C-O, C=C and P-O. SEM analysis shows a distinct porosity and irregular surfaces with roughness. The batch adsorption experiment was also implemented to obtain information on the influence of pH, metal concentration and contact time on the removal efficiency of the biochar. The results of the study indicated that the optimal conditions for the removal of the metal ions was a pH of 7, 20mg/L.  The adsorption equilibrium was obtained after 60 and 90 minutes of contact for Cd2+ and Zn2+respectively.The adsorption data fitted the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient (R2> 0.94) and suggested a uniform distribution of bonding energy between the Cd2+ and Zn2+ on biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity was 38.84 mg/g for Cd2+ and 33.692 mg/g for Zn2+. The kinetic study enlisted the pseudo-second-order as the best-fitted model. The adsorption was proposed to be facilitated by the chemisorption mechanism.


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Author Biographies

Onanuga Omotayo Aina, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Titus Morrawa Ryaghan, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry

Bello Musa Opeyemi, Federal University of Health Science, Ila-Orangun, Osun state, Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry

Momoh Daniel Clement, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Department of Chemistry


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